Socio-cognitive processes associated with bladder and bowel incontinence anxiety: A proposed bivalent model
The aim of this study was to examine whether the extended bivalent fear of evaluation model (extended BFOE) of Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) could be used to explain bladder and bowel incontinence anxiety (BBIA). It was hypothesised that the relationship between dysfunctional attitudes (DAs) and BBIA would be mediated by fear of negative evaluation (FNE), fear of positive evaluation (FPE), concerns of social reprisal (CSR), and disqualification of positive social outcomes (DPSO). Three-hundred-and-seventeen undergraduate students (76.7% female; mean age = 31.07 years) completed a cross-sectional online study. A structural equation model (SEM) supported the proposed model (χ2p value = .131, CMIN/df = 1.560, CFI = .996, TLI = .990, RMSEA = .042, SRMR = .0245) with significant relationships found between DAs and FNE (p < .001), DAs and FPE (p = .002), DAs and CSR (p = .007), FNE and CSR (p < .001), FNE and DPSO (p < .001), FPE and CSR (p < .001), FPE and DPSO (p < .001), CSR and DPSO (p < .001), BBIPSS bladder and bowel with incontinence anxiety (p < .001). These results suggest that DAs, FNE, and DPSO are important contributory factors in BBIA. Given that FNE was the strongest mediator in the model, clinicians may find it advantageous to target FNE in treatment of incontinence-anxiety.
KeywordsBladder and bowel incontinence anxiety Socio-cognitive Psychosomatic Extended bivalent fear of evaluation model
The authors would like to thank all the individuals who participated in our research.
This research was conducted through the support of the Australian Government Research Training Program Scholarship.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Provenance and Peer Review
Not commissioned, externally peer reviewed.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
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