Shyness, self-esteem, and loneliness as causes of FA: The moderating effect of low self-control

  • Mohammad Iranmanesh
  • Behzad Foroughi
  • Davoud Nikbin
  • Sunghyup Sean HyunEmail author


This study examined the impacts of shyness, self-esteem and loneliness on Facebook addiction by considering their inter-relations. Furthermore, the moderating effect of low self-control on the relationship between Facebook addiction and individuals’ performance was also examined. Data were collected via an online survey from 348 Malaysians and were analysed using the partial least squares technique. The results showed that shyness has both a direct effect and an indirect effect through loneliness on Facebook addiction. Although self-esteem has no direct effect on Facebook addiction, it has an indirect effect through loneliness. The results also confirmed that low self-control negatively moderates the relationship between Facebook addiction and individuals’ performance. The findings of the study contribute to knowledge on the impacts of social and psychological problem, including shyness, self-esteem and loneliness, on Facebook addiction. In addition, this study is the first attempt to investigate the moderating effect of personal characteristics, including low self-control, on the relationship between Facebook addiction and performance. The results could benefit psychologists, managers, and school counsellors in helping to prevent Facebook addiction and control its effect on individuals’ performance by developing prevention and intervention programs.


Facebook addiction Shyness Self-esteem Loneliness Low self-control 


Funding information

This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) grant funded by the Korea government(*MSIT) (No.2018R1A5A7059549). *Ministry of Science and ICT.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad Iranmanesh
    • 1
  • Behzad Foroughi
    • 2
  • Davoud Nikbin
    • 3
  • Sunghyup Sean Hyun
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Business and LawEdith Cowan UniversityPerthAustralia
  2. 2.Graduate School of BusinessUniversiti Sains MalaysiaPenangMalaysia
  3. 3.Faculty of BusinessSohar UnuversitySoharOman
  4. 4.School of TourismHanyang UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea

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