South Korean and U.S. Early Childhood Teachers’ Beliefs and Practices Supporting Children’s Social Competence
- 39 Downloads
A total of 186 early childhood teachers from South Korea and U.S. participated in this cross-cultural comparison study examining their beliefs and practices to support children’s social competence. Participants completed an instrument specifically designed to measure early childhood teachers’ beliefs and practices of using environmental, natural activity, and intensive instructional strategies to support children’s social competence. Results found some similarities among South Korean and U.S. teachers that they both believe in and practice environmental, natural activity, and intensive strategies in the respective order from the most to the least. Results, however, also found some culture-specific differences that U.S. teachers rated all the strategies higher than South Korean teachers, and that stronger relationship between beliefs and practices were found among South Korean teachers. Sociocultural factors related to early childhood teachers’ beliefs and practices about supporting children’s social competence are discussed.
KeywordsCross-cultural study Instructional strategies Social competence Teacher beliefs
This work was supported by a basic research grant from Seoul Women’s University(2017).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- Bodrova, E., & Leong, D. J. (2003). Learning and development of preschool children from the Vygotskian perspective. In A. Kozulin, B. Gindis, V. S. Ageyev, & S. M. Miller (Eds.), Vygotsky’s educational theory in cultural context (pp. 156–176). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Chen, Z., Zappulla, C., Coco, A. L., Schneider, B., Kaspar, V., DeOliveira, A. M., et al. (2004). Self-perceptions of competence in Brazilian, Canadian, Chinese and Italian children: Relations with social and school adjustment. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 28, 129–138. https://doi.org/10.1080/01650250344000334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Clarke-Stewart, K. A., Lee, Y., Alhusen, V. D., Kim, M. S., & McDowell, D. J. (2006). Observed differences between early childhood programs in the U.S. and Korea: Reflections of “developmentally appropriate practices” in two cultural contexts. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 27, 427–443. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2006.06.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- DeZutter, S., & Kelly, M. K. (2013). Social competence education in early childhood. In O. N. Saracho & B. Spodek (Eds.), Handbook of Research on the Education of Young Children (pp. 206–218). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Durlak, J. A., Weissberg, R. P., Dymnicki, A. B., Taylor, R. D., & Schellinger, K. B. (2011). The impact of enhancing students’ social and emotional learning: A meta-analysis of school-based universal interventions. Child Development, 82, 405–432. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01564.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fox, L., & Hemmeter, M. L. (2009). A program-wide model for supporting social emotional development and addressing challenging behavior in early childhood settings. In W. Sailor, G. Dunlap, G. Sugai, & R. Horner (Eds.), Handbook of positive behavior support (pp. 177–202). New York, NY: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Han, H. S. (2012). Professional development that works: Shifting preschool teachers’ beliefs and use of instructional strategies to promote children’s peer social competence. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 33, 251–268. https://doi.org/10.1080/10901027.2012.705804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hemmeter, M. L., & Fox, L. (2008). Supporting teachers in promoting children’s social competence and addressing challenging behavior. In P. J. Winton, J. A. McCollum, & C. Catlett (Eds.), Practical approaches to early childhood professional development: Evidence, strategies, and resources (pp. 119–141). Washington, DC: Zero to Three.Google Scholar
- Hemmeter, M. L., Snyder, P. A., Fox, L., & Algina, J. (2016). Evaluating the implementation of the Pyramid Model for promoting social-emotional competence in early childhood classrooms. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 36, 133–146. https://doi.org/10.1177/0271121416653386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Heo, K. H., Cheatham, G. A., Hemmeter, M. L., & Noh, J. (2014). Korean early childhood educators’ perceptions of importance and implementation of strategies to address young children’s social-emotional competence. Journal of Early Intervention, 36, 49–66. https://doi.org/10.1177/1053815114557280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Jeon, H. M., & Seo, Y. S. (2012). Childhood teacher’s perception on the five-year-old Nuri curriculum. Korean Journal of After-School Child Education, 9(1), 23–45.Google Scholar
- Jung, S., & Noh, J. (2011). Teachers’ understanding, application status, and support needs regarding PBS according to different early childhood institutions. Korean Journal of Early Childhood Special Education, 11, 1), 1–1),21.Google Scholar
- Katz, L. G., & McClellan, D. E. (1997). Fostering children’s social competence: The teachers’ role. Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children.Google Scholar
- Kemple, K. M. (2004). Let’s be friends: Peer competence and social inclusion in early childhood programs. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
- Kemple, K. M., Kim, H. K., Ellis, S., & Han, H. S. (2008). A test of a measure for assessing teachers’ judgment about social interaction practices in the preschool years. Early Childhood Research and Practice, 10(2). Available online at http://ecrp.uiuc.edu/v10n2/kemple.html.
- Killen, M., Ardila-Rey, A., Barakkatz, M., & Wang, P. (2000). Preschool teachers’ perceptions about conflict resolution, autonomy, and the group in four countries: United States, Columbia, El Salvador, and Taiwan. Early Education & Development, 11, 73–92. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15566935eed1101_5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kim, H. K. (2013). Early childhood preservice teachers’ beliefs about the importance of social interaction of young children and the relationship with field experiences in South Korea. Early Childhood Education Research & Review, 17(5), 75–93.Google Scholar
- Kim, H. K., & Han, H. S. (2015). Understanding early childhood teachers’ beliefs and self-stated practices about social competence instructional strategies in the context of developmentally appropriate practice: A comparison of preservice and in-service teachers in the United States. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 23, 476–496. https://doi.org/10.1080/1350293X.2015.1087152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kwon, Y. (2002). Western influences in Korean preschool education. International Education Journal, 3, 153–164.Google Scholar
- Maruyama, H., Ujiie, T., Takai, J., Takahama, Y., Sakagami, H., Shibayama, M., et al. (2015). Cultural difference in conflict management strategies of children and its development: Comparing 3-and-5-year-olds across China, Japan, and Korea. Early Education and Development, 26, 1210–1233. https://doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2015.1036344.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Nelson, R. F. (2000). Personal and environmental factors that influence early childhood teachers’ practices. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 27, 95–103 Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/1416362906?accountid=13779.Google Scholar
- Noh, J., & Park, H. (2009). Current status of PBS implementation in early childhood special education settings in Korea. Korean Journal of Early Childhood Special Education, 9(3), 23–29.Google Scholar
- Rogoff, B. (2003). The cultural nature of human development. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Rose-Krasnor, L. (1997). The nature of social competence: A theoretical review. Social Development, 6, 111–135. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.1997.tb00097.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tudge, J., Hogan, D., Lee, S., Tammeveski, P., Meltsas, M., Kulakova, N., et al. (1999). Cultural heterogeneity: Parental values and beliefs and their preschoolers’ activities in the United States, South Korea, Russia, and Estonia. In A. Goncu (Ed.), Children’s engagement in the world: Sociocultural perspectives (pp. 62–96). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Vartuli, S. (2005). Beliefs: The heart of teaching. Young Children, 60(5), 76–86.Google Scholar
- Villegas, A. M., & Lucas, T. (2002). Educating culturally responsive teachers: A coherent approach. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
- Wilcox-Herzog, A., & Ward, S. L. (2004). Measuring teachers’ perceived interactions with children: A tool for assessing beliefs and intentions. Early Childhood Research and Practice, 6(2). Available online at http://ecrp.uiuc.edu/v6n2/herzog.html.
- Zins, J. E., Bloodworth, M. R., Weissberg, R. P., & Walberg, H. J. (2004). The scientific base linking social and emotional learning to school success. In J. E. Zins, R. P. Weissberg, M.C. Wang & H. J. Walberg (Eds.), Building academic success on social and emotional learning (pp.3–22). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar