Associations between social support, career self-efficacy, and career indecision among youth
Previous research suggests that social support affects both career self-efficacy and career decision-making status. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between social support and career indecision and the role that career self-efficacy plays in this relationship. A series of validated measures assessing social support, career self-efficacy, and career indecision were administrated to 700 Kosovar youth (mean age = 18.1 years, 57% women and 42.9% men). The findings revealed that social support was significantly negatively correlated with career indecision. The study results also indicated that social support was indirectly correlated with career indecision, as career self-efficacy played a mediating role in this relationship. The findings provide useful insight into the links between social support, career self-efficacy, and career decision making. Therefore, these results provide a foundation for the development of interventions for adolescents.
KeywordsCareer self-efficacy Social support Career indecision Adolescents
L.J.G conceived of the presented idea. L.J.G, Z.H.D and K.K developed further the idea, conducted the research, analyzed the data and wrote the manuscript. L.J.G supervised the findings and the overall work. All authors discussed the results and contributed to the final manuscript.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.
All procedures in the study were performed in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all participants included in the study.
- Allison, Ch. & Cossette, M. (2007). Three theories of career development and choice. WA: Edmonds Community College.Google Scholar
- Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.Google Scholar
- Ferry, N. M. (2006). Factors influencing career choice of adolescents and young adults in rural Pennsylvania. Journal of Extension, 44(3).Google Scholar
- Hayes, A. F. (2012). PROCESS: A versatile computational tool for observed variable mediation, moderation, and conditional process modeling [White paper]. Retrieved from http://www.afhayes.com/public/process2012.pdf.
- Herr, E. L., & Lear, P. B. (1984). The family as an influence on career development. Family Therapy Collections, 10, 1–15.Google Scholar
- Jemini-Gashi, L. (2010). Factors influencing Kosovar adolescents' decision making for selection of profession [abstract]. Alb Science.Google Scholar
- Jemini-Gashi, L. (2012). Career maturity and decision making of Kosovo adolescents for choice of profession. Announcements from the scientific conference “Science Week.” MEST.Google Scholar
- Jemini-Gashi, L. (2013a). Psychosocial factors influencing the career decision making process among Kosovar adolescents. Scientific bulletin no. 1 (VII). The University of Tirana. ISSN 2227-7781. Retrieved from: http://www.planetar.edu.al/docs/buletini-7.pdf.
- Jemini-Gashi, L. (2013b). Contextual factors, self-efficacy and career decision status of Kosovar adolescents. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Thought, 3(3).Google Scholar
- Jemini-Gashi, L. (2014). Factors influencing the career decision making among Kosovar adolescents (Dissertation). Retrieved from: http://www.doktoratura.unitir.edu.al/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/Doktoratura-Liridona-Jemini-Gashi-Fakulteti-i-Shkencave-Sociale-Departamenti-i-Psikologji-Pedagogjise.pdf.
- June-Schapeler Bergen, R. (2006). Family influences on young adult career development and aspirations (unpublished dissertation). University of North Texas.Google Scholar
- Köhler, H. & Burghard, J. (2011). Draft strategy and action plan for orientation and career counseling 2013–2016.Google Scholar
- Lent, R. W., Brown, S. D., Nota, L., & Soresi, S. (2003). Testing social cognitive interest and choice hypotheses across Holland types in Italian high school students. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 62(1), 101-118.Google Scholar
- Lent, R. W., Brown, S. D., & Hackett, G. (1996). Career development from a social cognitive perspective. In D. Brown & L. Brooks (Eds.), Career: Choice and development (3rd ed., pp. 373–422). San Francisco: Jossey Bass.Google Scholar
- Lewko, J. H. (1994). The evaluation of career indecision in career development. Canadian Journal of Counselling, 28, 281–289.Google Scholar
- MEST. (2011). Kosovo Education Strategic Plan 2011 - 2016. 25 “Draft Strategy and Action Plan for Career Orientation and Counseling 2013-2016. MEST, p. 34.Google Scholar
- Osipow, C., Carney, W., Yanico, K. (1976). Career decision scale. PA: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.Google Scholar
- Wolfe, J. B., & Betz, N. E. (2004). The relationship of attachment variables to career decision‐making self‐efficacy and fear of commitment. The Career Development Quarterly, 52(4), 363-369.Google Scholar