The interactional effect between employees’ perceived materialistic rewards and marital status on attitudinal and behavioral outcomes: An empirical investigation

  • Jiseon Shin
  • Junghyun ParkEmail author


This study investigates whether the degree of materialistic rewards perceived by employees leads to creative behavior for organizational change, and identifies possible mechanisms, focusing on normative change commitment. We tested the hypothesis that the relationship between material compensation provided by an organization and employees’ normative change commitment varies depending on marital status. We conducted surveys at two different times and collected multi-sourced data in an organization that was undergoing large-scale organizational change. Specifically, 237 employees completed a self-report questionnaire that measured the level of their perceived materialistic rewards; this was followed by a second-round questionnaire to measure the employees’ normative change commitment. In the second round, we asked the team leaders of the respondents to evaluate their employees’ creative behavior toward change. As a result, we verified that employees’ normative change commitment has a mediating effect on the relationship between their perceived materialistic rewards and their creative behavior toward change. We also found that the marital status of employees is an important moderating variable in the relationship between the employees’ perceived materialistic rewards and their normative change commitment.


Perceived materialistic rewards Marital status Normative change commitment Creative behavior toward change 


Funding Information

This work was supported by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea and the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2016S1A5A2A02926799).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Ahituv, A., & Lerman, R. I. (2007). How do marital status, work effort, and wage rates interact? Demography, 44(3), 623–647.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beer, M., Eisenstat, R. A., & Spector, B. (1990). Why change programs don’t produce change. Harvard Business Review, 68(6), 158–166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bergstrom, T., & Schoeni, R. F. (1996). Income prospects and age-at-marriage. Journal of Population Economics, 9(2), 115–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bielby, D. D., & Bielby, W. T. (1988). She works hard for the money: Household responsibilities and the allocation of work effort. American Journal of Sociology, 93(5), 1031–1059.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Billings, R. S., & Wroten, S. P. (1978). Use of path analysis in industrial/organizational psychology: Criticisms and suggestions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 63(6), 677–688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  7. Brines, J. (1994). Economic dependency, gender, and the division of labor at home. American Journal of Sociology, 100(1), 652–688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Byron, K., & Khazanchi, S. (2012). Rewards and creative performance: A meta-analytic test of theoretically derived hypotheses. Psychological Bulletin, 138(4), 809–830.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Caldwell, S. D., & Liu, Y. (2011). Further investigating the influence of personality in employee response to organisational change: The moderating role of change-related factors. Human Resource Management Journal, 21(1), 74–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cropanzano, R., Anthony, E. L., Daniels, S. R., & Hall, A. V. (2017). Social exchange theory: A critical review with theoretical remedies. Academy of Management Annals, 11(1), 479–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cunningham, G. B. (2006). The relationships among commitment to change, coping with change, and turnover intentions. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 15(1), 29–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Daniel, K. (1992). Does marriage make workers more productive? Chicago: Unpublished doctoral dissertation.Google Scholar
  13. Ederer, F., & Manso, G. (2013). Is pay for performance detrimental to innovation? Management Science, 59(7), 1496–1513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Efron, B., & Tibshirani, R. J. (1993). An introduction to the bootstrap. New York: Chapman & Hall.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Eisenberger, R., Cotterell, N., & Marvel, J. (1987). Reciprocation ideology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53(4), 743–750.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Eisenberger, R., Fasolo, P., & Davis-LaMastro, V. (1990). Perceived organizational support and employee diligence, commitment, and innovation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75(1), 51–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Eisenberger, R., Lynch, P., Aselage, J., & Rohdieck, S. (2004). Who takes the most revenge? Individual differences in negative reciprocity norm endorsement. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30(6), 787–799.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fay, D., & Luhrmann, H. (2004). Current themes in organizational change. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 13(2), 113–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fugate, M., & Kinicki, A. J. (2008). A dispositional approach to employability: Development of a measure and test of implications for employee reactions to organizational change. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 81(1), 503–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fugate, M., Kinicki, A. J., & Scheck, C. L. (2002). Coping with an organizational merger over four stages. Personnel Psychology, 55(1), 905–928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gorman, E. H. (2000). Marriage and money: The effect of marital status on attitudes toward pay and finances. Work and Occupations, 27(1), 64–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Han, J., Shipilov, A., & Greve, H. (2016). Unequal bedfellows: Gender role-based deference in multiplex ties between Korean business groups. Academy of Management Journal, 60(4), 1531–1553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Heifetz, R. A., & Laurie, D. L. (2001). The work of leadership. Harvard Business Review, 79(11), 131–140.Google Scholar
  24. Herold, D. M., Fedor, D. B., & Caldwell, S. D. (2007). Beyond change management: A multilevel investigation of contextual and personal influences on employees' commitment to change. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(4), 942–951.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Herold, D. M., Fedor, D. B., Caldwell, S., & Liu, Y. (2008). The effects of transformational and change leadership on employees' commitment to a change: A multilevel study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(2), 346–357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Herscovitch, L., & Meyer, J. P. (2002). Commitment to organizational change: Extension of a three-component model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(3), 474–487.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hom, P. W., Tsui, A. S., Wu, J. B., Lee, T. W., Zhang, A. Y., Fu, P. P., & Li, L. (2009). Explaining employment relationships with social exchange and job embeddedness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(2), 277–297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Idemobi, E., Ngige, C. D., & Ofili, P. N. (2017). Relationship between organization reward system and workers attitude to work. Journal of Business and Economic Development, 2(4), 247.Google Scholar
  29. Jia, L., Shaw, J. D., Tsui, A. S., & Park, T. Y. (2014). A social–structural perspective on employee-organization relationships and team creativity. Academy of Management Journal, 57(3), 869–891.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kanfer, R. (1990). Motivation theory and industrial and organizational psychology. Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 1(2), 75–130.Google Scholar
  31. Kim, Y. K. (2011). The exploratory study of examining the antecedents of employee's organizational change commitment: Focusing on affective and normative commitment. Journal of the Korea Industrial Information Systems Research, 16(4), 163–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kim, W. C., & Mauborgne, R. (2003). Fair process: Managing in the knowledge economy. Harvard Business Review, 81(1), 127–136.Google Scholar
  33. Kool, M., & van Dierendonck, D. (2012). Servant leadership and commitment to change, the mediating role of justice and optimism. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 25(3), 422–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kotter, J. P., & Cohen, D. S. (2002). The heart of change: Real-life stories of how people change their organizations. Boston: Harvard Business Press.Google Scholar
  35. Michaelis, B., Stegmaier, R., & Sonntag, K. (2009). Affective commitment to change and innovation implementation behavior: The role of charismatic leadership and employees’ trust in top management. Journal of Change Management, 9(4), 399–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Neubert, M. J., & Cady, S. H. (2001). Program commitment: A multi-study longitudinal field investigation of its impact and antecedents. Personnel Psychology, 54(2), 421–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Parker, S. L., Jimmieson, N. L., & Techakesari, P. (2017). Using stress and resource theories to examine the incentive effects of a performance-based extrinsic reward. Human Performance, 30(4), 169–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40(3), 879–891.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Raja, U., & Johns, G. (2010). The joint effects of personality and job scope on in-role performance, citizenship behaviors, and creativity. Human Relations, 63(7), 981–1005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Reed, R., & Harford, K. (1989). The marriage premium and compensating wage differentials. Journal of Population Economics, 2(1), 237–265.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Robertson, P. J., Roberts, D. R., & Porras, J. I. (1993). Dynamics of planned organizational change: Assessing empirical support for a theoretical model. Academy of Management Journal, 36(3), 619–634.Google Scholar
  42. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25(1), 54–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ryan, R. M., Mims, V., & Koestner, R. (1983). Relation of reward contingency and interpersonal context to intrinsic motivation: A review and test using cognitive evaluation theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45(4), 736–750.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Seo, M. G., Taylor, M. S., Hill, N., Zhang, X., Tesluk, P. E., & Lorinkova, N. M. (2012). The role of affect and leadership during organizational change. Personnel Psychology, 65(1), 121–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Shin, J., Taylor, M. S., & Seo, M. G. (2012). Resources for change: The relationships of organizational inducements and psychological resilience to employees' attitudes and behaviors toward organizational change. Academy of Management Journal, 55(3), 727–748.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Shrout, P. E., & Bolger, N. (2002). Mediation in experimental and nonexperimental studies: New procedures and recommendations. Psychological Methods, 7(4), 422–445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. South, S., & Spitze, G. (1994). Housework in marital and nonmarital households. American Journal of Sociology, 59(1), 327–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Stevens, G. W. (2013). Toward a process-based approach of conceptualizing change readiness. Journal of Applied Behavior Science, 49(1), 333–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Teachman, J. D., Call, V. R., & Carver, K. P. (1994). Marital status and the duration of joblessness among white men. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 56(1), 415–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Tsui, A. S., Pearce, J. L., Porter, L. W., & Tripoli, A. M. (1997). Alternative approaches to the employee-organization relationship: Does investment in employees pay off? Academy of Management Journal, 40(5), 1089–1121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Van der Voet, J., Kuipers, B. S., & Groeneveld, S. (2016). Implementing change in public organizations: The relationship between leadership and affective commitment to change in a public sector context. Public Management Review, 18(6), 842–865.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Van Knippenberg, B., Martin, L., & Tyler, T. (2006). Process-orientation versus outcome-orientation during organizational change: The role of organizational identification. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27(6), 685–704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wee, E. X., & Taylor, M. S. (2018). Attention to change: A multilevel theory on the process of emergent continuous organizational change. Journal of Applied Psychology, 103(1), 1–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Zhou, J., & George, J. M. (2001). When job dissatisfaction leads to creativity: Encouraging the expression of voice. Academy of Management Journal, 44(1), 682–696.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Organization and Human Resources, SKK Business SchoolSungkyunkwan UniversitySeoulSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations