How can stress resilience be monitored? A systematic review of measurement in humans

  • Josephine S. O’DonohueEmail author
  • Christopher Mesagno
  • Brendan O’Brien


Stress resilience studies focus on resilience operationalised within the context of stressors. Currently, there is no clear operationalisation of stress resilience in humans. To identify and critically examine measures used to assess stress resilience. A systematic review of English and non-English articles using PubMed (including MEDLINE), Scopus, Web of Science, PsycINFO, ScienceDirect, and CINAHL was conducted. No date limits were set. Search terms included stress resilience, resilience to stress, stress resilient, and humans. Studies were selected based on pre-determined eligibility criteria. Empirical, quantitative research studies that measured individual stress resilience in humans were eligible for inclusion in this review. Two researchers conducted independent extraction of articles based on predefined fields, focusing on types of measures used. A narrative synthesis was used to present the findings, structured around the types of instruments used and conceptual focuses of these measures. We identified a number of measures, both self-report and performance based. We highlight the heterogeneity in operationalisation of stress resilience and suggest that, in future, researchers’ state operationalised definitions of stress resilience overtly to decrease confusion.


stress resilience humans measurement operationalise psychological resilience 



This work was supported by an Australian Government Research Training Program Scholarship.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of Interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.


  1. American Psychological Association. (n.d.). The road to resilience. Retrieved Janurary 20, 2018 from
  2. An, E. (2016). Heart rate variability as an index of stress resilience. (Doctoral dissertation), Fuller Theological Seminary. Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database (Accession No. 10109465)Google Scholar
  3. Aniţei, M., Chraif, M., & Chiriac, G. (2012). Resilience to stress evidence-based improvements in integrative psychotherapy working groups. Paper presented at the Procedia Soc Behav Sci.Google Scholar
  4. Azadmarzabadi, E., Haghighatfard, A., & Mohammadi, A. (2018). Low resilience to stress is associated with candidate gene expression alterations in the dopaminergic signalling pathway. Psychogeriatrics, 18(3), 190–201. Scholar
  5. Bakiyeva, L. T., Brooks, R. A., & Rushton, N. (2005). Inter-individual and intra-individual variability in TNF-alpha production by human peripheral blood cells in vitro. Cytokine, 30(1), 35–40. Scholar
  6. Baron, L., Eisman, H., Scuello, M., Veyzer, A., & Lieberman, M. (1996). Stress resilience, locus of control, and religion in children of Holocaust victims. The Journal of Psychology, 130(5), 513–525.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baum, A., Grunberg, N. E., & Singer, J. E. (1982). The use of psychological and neuroendocrinological measurements in the study of stress. Health Psychology, 1(3), 217–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Belnap, N. (1993). On rigorous definitions. Philosophical Studies, 72(2/3), 115–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bergh, C., Udumyan, R., Fall, K., Nilsagård, Y., Appelros, P., & Montgomery, S. (2014). Stress resilience in male adolescents and subsequent stroke risk: Cohort study. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 85(12), 1331–1336. Scholar
  10. Bergh, C., Udumyan, R., Fall, K., Almroth, H., & Montgomery, S. (2015). Stress resilience and physical fitness in adolescence and risk of coronary heart disease in middle age. Heart, 101(8), 623–629. Scholar
  11. Bergh, C., Udumyan, R., Appelros, P., Fall, K., & Montgomery, S. (2016). Determinants in adolescence of stroke-related hospital stay duration in men: A national cohort study. Stroke, 47(9), 2416–2418. Scholar
  12. Berkes, F., & Ross, H. (2013). Community resilience: Toward an integrated approach. Society and Natural Resources, 26(1), 5–20. Scholar
  13. Bonanno, G. A., & Diminich, E. D. (2013). Annual Research Review: Positive adjustment to adversity--trajectories of minimal-impact resilience and emergent resilience. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54(4), 378–401. Scholar
  14. Brachman, R. A., McGowan, J. C., Perusini, J. N., Lim, S. C., Pham, T. H., Faye, C., et al. (2016). Ketamine as a prophylactic against stress-induced depressive-like behavior. Biological Psychiatry, 79(9), 776–786. Scholar
  15. Braniecka, A., Trzebińska, E., Dowgiert, A., & Wytykowska, A. (2014). Mixed emotions and coping: The benefits of secondary emotions. PLoS One, 9(8), e103940. Scholar
  16. Bronskyi, V. I., & Lapanov, P. S. (2012). Life event perception, psychological coping, and psychotherapeutic correction of blood pressure in patients with arterial hypertension. Cardiovascular Therapy and Prevention, 11(2), 19–23.Google Scholar
  17. Campbell, J., & Ehlert, U. (2012). Acute psychosocial stress: Does the emotional stress response correspond with physiological responses? Psychoneuroendocrinology, 37(8), 1111–1134. Scholar
  18. Carlson, J. M., Dikecligil, G. N., Greenberg, T., & Mujica-Parodi, L. R. (2012). Trait reappraisal is associated with resilience to acute psychological stress. Journal of Research in Personality, 46(5), 609–613. Scholar
  19. Chen, R., Fall, K., Czene, K., Kennedy, B., Valdimarsdóttir, U., & Fang, F. (2018). Impact of parental cancer on IQ, stress resilience, and physical fitness in young men. Clinical Epidemiology, 10, 593–604. Scholar
  20. Cohen, S., Kessler, R. C., & Gordon, L. U. (1995). Measuring stress: A guide for health and social scientists. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Connor, K. M., & Davidson, J. R. (2003). Development of a new resilience scale: the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). Depression and Anxiety, 18(2), 76–82. Scholar
  22. Cowen, E. L., Wyman, P. A., Work, W. C., & Parker, G. R. (1990). The Rochester Child Resilience Project: Overview and summary of first year findings. Development and Psychopathology, 2(2), 193–212. Scholar
  23. Cramer, T., Kisliouk, T., Yeshurun, S., & Meiri, N. (2015). The balance between stress resilience and vulnerability is regulated by corticotropin-releasing hormone during the critical postnatal period for sensory development. Developmental Neurobiology, 75(8), 842–853. Scholar
  24. Crump, C., Sundquist, J., Winkleby, M. A., & Sundquist, K. (2016a). Low stress resilience in late adolescence and risk of hypertension in adulthood. Heart, 102(7), 541–547. Scholar
  25. Crump, C., Sundquist, J., Winkleby, M. A., & Sundquist, K. (2016b). Stress resilience and subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes in 1.5 million young men. Diabetologia, 59(4), 728–733. Scholar
  26. D'Anca, J. A. (2017). Mindset and resilience: An analysis and intervention for school administrators. (Unpublished doctorial dissertation). St John's University, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  27. Davydov, D. M., Stewart, R., Ritchie, K., & Chaudieu, I. (2010). Resilience and mental health. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(5), 479–495. Scholar
  28. de Visser, E. J., Dorfman, A., Chartrand, D., Lamon, J., Freedy, E., & Weltman, G. (2016). Building resilience with the Stress Resilience Training System: Design validation and applications. Work, 54(2), 351–366. Scholar
  29. Dimsdale, J. E. (2008). Psychological stress and cardiovascular disease. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 51(13), 1237–1246. Scholar
  30. Ewart, C. K., Jorgensen, R. S., Suchday, S., Chen, E., & Matthews, K. A. (2002). Measuring stress resilience and coping in vulnerable youth: The social competence interview. Psychological Assessment, 14(3), 339–352. Scholar
  31. Farkas, D., & Orosz, G. (2015). Ego-resiliency reloaded: A three-component model of general resiliency. PLoS One, 10(3), e0120883. Scholar
  32. Feder, A., Nestler, E. J., & Charney, D. S. (2009). Psychobiology and molecular genetics of resilience. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 10(6), 446–457. Scholar
  33. Fink, G. (2017). Stress: Concepts, definition and history. Scholar
  34. Fleshner, M., Maier, S. F., Lyons, D. M., & Raskind, M. A. (2011). The neurobiology of the stress-resistant brain. Stress, 14(5), 498–502. Scholar
  35. Galante, J., Dufour, G., Vainre, M., Wagner, A. P., Stochl, J., Benton, A., et al. (2018). A mindfulness-based intervention to increase resilience to stress in university students (the Mindful Student Study): A pragmatic randomised controlled trial. The Lancet Public Health, 3(2), E72–E81. Scholar
  36. Gerber, M., Kalak, N., Lemola, S., Clough, P. J., Perry, J. L., Pühse, U., et al. (2013). Are adolescents with high mental toughness levels more resilient against stress? Stress and Health, 29(2), 164–171. Scholar
  37. Gerber, M., Jonsdottir, I. H., Lindwall, M., & Ahlborg, G. (2014). Physical activity in employees with differing occupational stress and mental health profiles: A latent profile analysis. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15(6), 649–658. Scholar
  38. Giraldi, F. P., Saccani, A., Cavagnini, F., & The Study Group on the Hypothalamo-Pituitary–Adrenal Axis of the Italian Society of Endocrinology. (2011). Assessment of ACTH assay variability: A multicenter study. European Journal of Endocrinology, 164(4), 505–512. Scholar
  39. Goodnite, P. M. (2014). Stress: A concept analysis. Nursing Forum, 49(1), 71–74. Scholar
  40. Guinn, B., Vincent, V., & Dugas, D. (2009). Stress resilience among border Mexican American women. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 31(2), 228–243. Scholar
  41. Gunnarsson, M., Udumyan, R., Bahmanyar, S., Nilsagard, Y., & Montgomery, S. (2015). Characteristics in childhood and adolescence associated with future multiple sclerosis risk in men: Cohort study. European Journal of Neurology, 22(7), 1131–1137. Scholar
  42. Han, M. H., & Nestler, E. J. (2017). Neural substrates of depression and resilience. Neurotherapeutics, 14(3), 677–686. Scholar
  43. Hartfiel, N., Havenhand, J., Khalsa, S. B., Clarke, G., & Krayer, A. (2011). The effectiveness of yoga for the improvement of well-being and resilience to stress in the workplace. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 37(1), 70–76. Scholar
  44. Hayes, L. D., Sculthorpe, N., Cunniffe, B., & Grace, F. (2016). Salivary testosterone and cortisol measurement in sports medicine: A narrative review and user's guide for researchers and practitioners. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 37(13), 1007–1018. Scholar
  45. Hellhammer, J., & Schubert, M. (2012). The physiological response to Trier Social Stress Test relates to subjective measures of stress during but not before or after the test. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 37(1), 119–124. Scholar
  46. Hiyoshi, A., Fall, K., Netuveli, G., & Montgomery, S. (2015a). Remarriage after divorce and depression risk. Social Science & Medicine, 141, 109–114. Scholar
  47. Hiyoshi, A., Udumyan, R., Osika, W., Bihagen, E., Fall, K., & Montgomery, S. (2015b). Stress resilience in adolescence and subsequent antidepressant and anxiolytic medication in middle aged men: Swedish cohort study. Social Science & Medicine, 134, 43–49. Scholar
  48. Hiyoshi, A., Sabet, J. A., Sjöqvist, H., Melinder, C., Brummer, R. J., & Montgomery, S. (2017). Precursors in adolescence of adult-onset bipolar disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 218, 353–358. Scholar
  49. Hoge, E. A., Bui, E., Palitz, S. A., Schwarz, N. R., Owens, M. E., Johnston, J. M., et al. (2018). The effect of mindfulness meditation training on biological acute stress responses in generalized anxiety disorder. Psychiatry Research, 262, 328–332. Scholar
  50. Holgate, J. Y., & Bartlett, S. E. (2015). Early life stress, nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and alcohol use disorders. Brain Sciences, 5(3), 258–274. Scholar
  51. Hruschka, D. J., Kohrt, B. A., & Worthman, C. M. (2005). Estimating between- and within-individual variation in cortisol levels using multilevel models. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 30(7), 698–714. Scholar
  52. Issler, O., Haramati, S., Paul, E. D., Maeno, H., Navon, I., Zwang, R., et al. (2014). MicroRNA 135 is essential for chronic stress resiliency, antidepressant efficacy, and intact serotonergic activity. Neuron, 83(2), 344–360. Scholar
  53. Kennedy, B., Fang, F., Valdimarsdottir, U., Udumyan, R., Montgomery, S., & Fall, K. (2017). Stress resilience and cancer risk: A nationwide cohort study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 71(10), 947–953. Scholar
  54. Kennedy, B., Chen, R., Valdimarsdóttir, U., Montgomery, S., Fang, F., & Fall, K. (2018). Childhood bereavement and lower stress resilience in late adolescence. J Adolesc Health, 63(1), 108–114. Scholar
  55. Khodabakhshi Koolaee, A., Heidari, S., Khoshkonesh, A., & Heidari, M. (2013). Relationship between spiritual intelligence and resilience to stress in preference of delivery method in pregnant women. Iranian Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Infertility, 16(58), 8–15.Google Scholar
  56. Kobasa, S. C., & Puccetti, M. C. (1983). Personality and social resources in stress resistance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45(4), 839–850. Scholar
  57. Kobasa, S. C., Maddi, S. R., & Kahn, S. (1982). Hardiness and health: A prospective study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42(1), 168–177. Scholar
  58. Koolhaas, J. M., Bartolomucci, A., Buwalda, B., de Boer, S. F., Flugge, G., Korte, S. M., et al. (2011). Stress revisited: A critical evaluation of the stress concept. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 35(5), 1291–1301. Scholar
  59. Kudielka, B. M., Hellhammer, D. H., & Wust, S. (2009). Why do we respond so differently? Reviewing determinants of human salivary cortisol responses to challenge. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 34(1), 2–18. Scholar
  60. Kuss, O., Schumann, B., Kluttig, A., Greiser, K. H., & Haerting, J. (2008). Time domain parameters can be estimated with less statistical error than frequency domain parameters in the analysis of heart rate variability. Journal of Electrocardiology, 41(4), 287–291. Scholar
  61. Landis, J. R., & Koch, G. G. (1977). The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics, 33(1), 159–174. Scholar
  62. Laurent, H. K., Laurent, S. M., & Granger, D. A. (2014). Salivary nerve growth factor response to stress related to resilience. Physiology & Behavior, 129, 130–134. Scholar
  63. Lavretsky, H., Siddarth, P., Irwin, M. R., Lavretsky, H., Siddarth, P., & Irwin, M. R. (2010). Improving depression and enhancing resilience in family dementia caregivers: A pilot randomized placebo-controlled trial of escitalopram. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 18(2), 154–162. Scholar
  64. Levine, S. (2005). Developmental determinants of sensitivity and resistance to stress. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 30(10), 939–946. Scholar
  65. Liliebald, B., & Stahlberg, B. (1977). Reliability of the psychological assessments at conscription. (Report No. C55011–07). Stockholm, Sweden: Armed forces research department, Sweden.Google Scholar
  66. Longinetti, E., Mariosa, D., Larsson, H., Almqvist, C., Lichtenstein, P., Ye, W., & Fang, F. (2017). Physical and cognitive fitness in young adulthood and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis at an early age. European Journal of Neurology, 24(1), 137–142. Scholar
  67. Lucini, D., Sala, R., Spataro, A., Malacarne, M., Benzi, M., Tamorri, S., & Pagani, M. (2018). Can the use of a single integrated unitary autonomic index provide early clues for eventual eligibility for olympic games? European Journal of Applied Physiology, 118(5), 919–926. Scholar
  68. Lukey, B. J., & Tepe, V. (2008). Biobehavioral resilience to stress. Boca Raton: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  69. Luthar, S. S., Cicchetti, D., & Becker, B. (2000). The construct of resilience: A critical evaluation and guidelines for future work. Child Development, 71(3), 543–562. Scholar
  70. Ma, D. Y., Chang, W. H., Chi, M. H., Tsai, H. C., Yang, Y. K., & Chen, P. S. (2016). The correlation between perceived social support, cortisol and brain derived neurotrophic factor levels in healthy women. Psychiatry Research, 239, 149–153. Scholar
  71. Marsland, A. L., Walsh, C., Lockwood, K., & John-Henderson, N. A. (2017). The effects of acute psychological stress on circulating and stimulated inflammatory markers: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 64, 208–219. Scholar
  72. Marvin, M. M., Gardner, F. C., Sarsfield, K. M., Travagli, R. A., & Doheny, K. K. (2018). Increased frequency of skin-to-skin contact is associated with enhanced vagal tone and improved health outcomes in preterm neonates. American Journal of Perinatology.
  73. Melinder, C., Udumyan, R., Hiyoshi, A., Brummer, R. J., & Montgomery, S. (2015). Decreased stress resilience in young men significantly increases the risk of subsequent peptic ulcer disease - a prospective study of 233 093 men in Sweden. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 41(10), 1005–1015. Scholar
  74. Melinder, C., Hiyoshi, A., Fall, K., Halfvarson, J., & Montgomery, S. (2017). Stress resilience and the risk of inflammatory bowel disease: A cohort study of men living in Sweden. BMJ Open, 7(1), e014315. Scholar
  75. Melinder, C., Hiyoshi, A., Kasiga, T., Halfvarson, J., Fall, K., & Montgomery, S. (2018). Resilience to stress and risk of gastrointestinal infections. European Journal of Public Health, 28(2), 364–369. Scholar
  76. Miller, L., & Smith, A. D. (1985). Stress vulnerability test. Berkeley Wellness Newsletter, 1, 12–17.Google Scholar
  77. Mohd, R. S. (2008). Life event, stress and illness. The Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences, 15(4), 9–18.Google Scholar
  78. Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., Altman, D. G., & The PRISMA Group. (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA statement. PLoS Medicine, 6(7), e1000097. Scholar
  79. Mokkink, L. B., Terwee, C. B., Knol, D. L., Stratford, P. W., Alonso, J., Patrick, D. L., et al. (2006). Protocol of the COSMIN study: COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 6, 2. Scholar
  80. Navarro, S. L., Brasky, T. M., Schwarz, Y., Song, X., Wang, C. Y., Kristal, A. R., et al. (2012). Reliability of serum biomarkers of inflammation from repeated measures in healthy individuals. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, 21(7), 1167–1170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Neff, L. A., & Broady, E. F. (2011). Stress resilience in early marriage: Can practice make perfect? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101(5), 1050–1067. Scholar
  82. Nicassio, P. M., Mendlowitz, D. R., Fussell, J. J., & Petras, L. (1985). The phenomenology of the pre-sleep state: The development of the pre-sleep arousal scale. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 23(3), 263–271. Scholar
  83. Nilsson, P. M., Nyberg, P., & Ostergren, P. O. (2001). Increased susceptibility to stress at a psychological assessment of stress tolerance is associated with impaired fetal growth. International Journal of Epidemiology, 30(1), 75–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. O'Hara, R., Marcus, P., Thompson, W. K., Flournoy, J., Vahia, I., Lin, X., et al. (2012). 5-HTTLPR short allele, resilience, and successful aging in older adults. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 20(5), 452–456.
  85. Obbarius, N., Fischer, F., Obbarius, A., Nolte, S., Liegl, G., & Rose, M. (2018). A 67-item stress resilience item bank showing high content validity was developed in a psychosomatic sample. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 100, 1–12. Scholar
  86. Out, D., Granger, D. A., Sephton, S. E., & Segerstrom, S. C. (2013). Disentangling sources of individual differences in diurnal salivary α-amylase: Reliability, stability and sensitivity to context. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 38(3), 367–375. Scholar
  87. Pannell, L. M., Rowe, L., & Tully, S. (2017). Stress resiliency practices in neonatal nurses. Advances in Neonatal Care, 17(4), 274–281.
  88. Pardini, D. A., Plante, T. G., Sherman, A., & Stump, J. E. (2000). Religious faith and spirituality in substance abuse recovery: Determining the mental health benefits. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 19(4), 347–354.
  89. Pluye, P., & Hong, Q. N. (2014). Combining the Power of Stories and the Power of Numbers: Mixed Methods Research and Mixed Studies Reviews. Annual Review of Public Health, 35(1), 29–45. Scholar
  90. Prati, G. (2010). Psychometric properties of the Dispositional Resilience Scale. Giorn Psicolog, 4(3), 252–261.Google Scholar
  91. Rau, H. K. (2017). Dispositional mindfulness and stress resilience: Self-regulatory capacity, affective stability, and presleep arousal in daily life. (Doctoral dissertation), University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT. Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (ProQuest No. 10163539)Google Scholar
  92. Richardson, G. E. (2002). The metatheory of resilience and resiliency. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58(3), 307–321. Scholar
  93. Robertson, J., Schioler, L., Toren, K., Soderberg, M., Love, J., Waern, M., et al. (2017). Mental disorders and stress resilience in adolescence and long-term risk of early heart failure among Swedish men. International Journal of Cardiology, 243, 326–331. Scholar
  94. Romero, L. M., Dickens, M. J., & Cyr, N. E. (2009). The Reactive Scope Model - A new model integrating homeostasis, allostasis, and stress. Hormones and Behavior, 55(3), 375–389. Scholar
  95. Russo, S. J., Murrough, J. W., Han, M. H., Charney, D. S., & Nestler, E. J. (2012). Neurobiology of resilience. Nature Neuroscience, 15(11), 1475–1484. Scholar
  96. Sandhu, B. S., Sharma, M., & Kaur, G. (2011). Stress resiliency and fatigue in commandos. J Indian Acad Appl Psychol, 37(2), 277–282.Google Scholar
  97. Schibalski, J. V., Müller, M., Ajdacic-Gross, V., Vetter, S., Rodgers, S., Oexle, N., et al. (2017). Stigma-related stress, shame and avoidant coping reactions among members of the general population with elevated symptom levels. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 74, 224–230. Scholar
  98. Schneider, T. R., Lyons, J. B., & Khazon, S. (2013). Emotional intelligence and resilience. Personality and Individual Differences, 55(8), 909–914. Scholar
  99. Seery, M. D. (2011). Challenge or threat? Cardiovascular indexes of resilience and vulnerability to potential stress in humans. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 35(7), 1603–1610. Scholar
  100. Shao, R., Lau, W. K. W., Leung, M. K., & Lee, T. M. C. (2018). Subgenual anterior cingulate-insula resting-state connectivity as a neural correlate to trait and state stress resilience. Brain and Cognition, 124, 73–81. Scholar
  101. Sinclair, R. R., & Oliver, C. M. (2003). Development and validation of a short measure of hardiness. Defense Technical Information Center Report. Retrieved from Defense Technical Information Center:
  102. Smeets, T. (2010). Autonomic and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress resilience: Impact of cardiac vagal tone. Biological Psychology, 84(2), 290–295. Scholar
  103. Smirnova, J., von Kobyletzki, L., Lindberg, M., Svensson, A., Langan, S. M., & Montgomery, S. (2018). Atopic dermatitis, educational attainment and psychological functioning: A national cohort study. The British Journal of Dermatology.
  104. Smith, B. W., Dalen, J., Wiggins, K., Tooley, E., Christopher, P., & Bernard, J. (2008). The Brief Resilience Scale: Assessing the ability to bounce back.. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 15(3), 194–200.
  105. Smith, B. W., Tooley, E. M., Christopher, P. J., & Kay, V. S. (2010). Resilience as the ability to bounce back from stress: A neglected personal resource? The Journal of Positive Psychology, 5(3), 166–176. Scholar
  106. Southwick, S. M., Bonanno, G. A., Masten, A. S., Panter-Brick, C., & Yehuda, R. (2014). Resilience definitions, theory, and challenges: Interdisciplinary perspectives. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 5.
  107. Steinberg, B. A., Klatt, M., & Duchemin, A. M. (2017). Feasibility of a mindfulness-based intervention for surgical intensive care unit personnel. American Journal of Critical Care, 26(1), 10–18. Scholar
  108. Stenmarker, M., Palmerus, K., & Marky, I. (2009). Stress-resilience capacity of pediatric oncologists: a Swedish nationwide and population-based study of motivation, emotional distress, and overall life satisfaction. Pediatric Blood & Cancer, 52(4), 503–509. Scholar
  109. Stiller, A. L., Drugan, R. C., Hazi, A., & Kent, S. P. (2011). Stress resilience and vulnerability: The association with rearing conditions, endocrine function, immunology, and anxious behavior. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 36(9), 1383–1395. Scholar
  110. Taylor, A. H. (2013). Assessing the effects of stress resilience training on visual discrimination skills: Implications for perceptual resilience in U.S. warfighters. (Doctoral dissertation), Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA. Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 3507808)Google Scholar
  111. ter Heegde, F., De Rijk, R. H., & Vinkers, C. H. (2015). The brain mineralocorticoid receptor and stress resilience. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 52, 92–110. Scholar
  112. Thoern, H. A., Grueschow, M., Ehlert, U., Ruff, C. C., & Kleim, B. (2016). Attentional bias towards positive emotion predicts stress resilience. PLoS One, 11(3), e0148368. Scholar
  113. Thogersen-Ntoumani, C., Black, J., Lindwall, M., Whittaker, A., & Balanos, G. M. (2017). Presenteeism, stress resilience, and physical activity in older manual workers: A person-centred analysis. European Journal of Ageing, 14(4), 385–396. Scholar
  114. Thomas, K. W., & Tymon, W. G. (1995). Interpretive styles that contribute to job-related stress: Two studies of managerial and professional employees. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 8(3), 235–250. Scholar
  115. Truffino, J. C. (2010). Resilience: An approach to the concept. Revista de Psiquiatría y Salud Mental, 3(4), 145–151. Scholar
  116. Udumyan, R., Montgomery, S., Fang, F., Valdimarsdottir, U., & Fall, K. (2018). Stress resilience in late adolescence and survival among cancer patients: A Swedish register-based cohort study. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.
  117. Umbarger, M. A. (2014). The impact of personality on stress resilience in firefighters. (Doctoral dissertation), Walden University, US. Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (Accession No. 1626379200)Google Scholar
  118. van der Werff, S. J. A., van den Berg, S. M., Pannekoek, J. N., Elzinga, B. M., & van der Wee, N. J. A. (2013). Neuroimaging resilience to stress: A review. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience(APR 2013).
  119. Vayzer-Milberg, A. (2000). Relationship of religiosity to stress resilience and degree of ptsd symptomology in children of Holocaust survivors and escapees. (Doctoral dissertation), Hofstra University, Hempstead, N.Y. Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 9991728)Google Scholar
  120. Velichkovsky, B. B. (2009). Primary and secondary appraisals in measuring resilience to stress. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 5(1), 539–563.
  121. Wagnild, G. M., & Young, H. M. (1993). Development and psychometric evaluation of the Resilience Scale. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 1(2), 165–178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Wellman, L. L., Fitzpatrick, M. E., Hallum, O. Y., Sutton, A. M., Williams, B. L., & Sanford, L. D. (2016). Individual differences in animal stress models: Considering resilience, vulnerability, and the amygdala in mediating the effects of stress and conditioned fear on sleep. Sleep, 39(6), 1293–1303. Scholar
  123. Yehuda, R., & Flory, J. D. (2007). Differentiating biological correlates of risk, PTSD, and resilience following trauma exposure. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 20(4), 435–447. Scholar
  124. Yiend, J., Lee, J., Tekes, S., Atkins, L., Mathews, A., Vrinten, M., et al. (2014). Modifying interpretation in a clinically depressed sample using ‘cognitive bias modification-errors’: A double blind randomised controlled trial. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 38(2), 146–159. Scholar

List of articles excluded following full text assessment

  1. Artinian, N. T., Abrams, J., Keteyian, S. J., Franks, M. M., Franklin, B., Pienta, A., et al. (2009). Correlates of depression at baseline among African Americans enrolled in cardiac rehabilitation. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention, 29(1), 24–31. Scholar
  2. Atkins, S. F. (1987). Relaxation techniques for university students: With special reference to hypnosis. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 3(1), 39–46. Scholar
  3. Bagusat, C., Kunzler, A., Schlecht, J., Franke, A. G., Chmitorz, A., & Lieb, K. (2018). Pharmacological neuroenhancement and the ability to recover from stress: A representative cross-sectional survey among the German population. Substance Abuse: Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, 13(1).
  4. Buote, D. (2007). The power of connection: The relation between attachment and resiliency in a sample of high risk adolescents. (Doctoral dissertation). retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. AAINR19947).Google Scholar
  5. Campbell-Sills, L., Forde, D. R., & Stein, M. B. (2009). Demographic and childhood environmental predictors of resilience in a community sample. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 43(12), 1007–1012. Scholar
  6. Carli, V., Mandelli, L., Zaninotto, L., Gatta, V., Stuppia, L., Serretti, A., & Sarchiapone, M. (2011). S42-03 - GXE interaction as a protective factor: 5HTTR and bad environment. European Psychiatry, 26(Supplement 1), 2163. Scholar
  7. Cederblad, M. (1996). The children of the Lundby study as adults: A salutogenic perspective. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 5(Suppl 1), 38–43. Scholar
  8. Cederblad, M., Dahlin, L., Hagnell, O., & Hansson, K. (1994). Salutogenic childhood factors reported by middle-aged individuals. Follow-up of the children from the Lundby study grown up in families experiencing three or more childhood psychiatric risk factors. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 244(1), 1–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chan, D. W. (2003). Hardiness and its role in the stress-burnout relationship among prospective Chinese teachers in Hong Kong. Teaching and Teacher Education, 19(4), 381–395Google Scholar
  10. Clark, C. S. (2013). An integral-caring-science RN-BS nursing curriculum: Outcomes from fostering consciousness evolution. Int J Hum Caring, 17(2), 67–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Costanzo, M. E. (2011). Examination of the brain processes underlying emotion regulation within a stress resilient population. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved August 23, 2017 from Proquest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. AAI3461507).Google Scholar
  12. Cowen, E. L., Work, W. C., Hightower, A. D., Wyman, P. A., Parker, G. R., & Lotyczewski, B. S. (1991). Toward the development of a measure of perceived self-efficacy in children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 20(2), 169–178. Scholar
  13. Cowen, E. L., Work, W. C., & Wyman, P. A. (1992a). Similarity of parent and child self-views in stress-affected and stress-resilient urban families. Acta Paedopsychiatrica, 55(4), 193–197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Cowen, E. L., Work, W. C., Wyman, P. A., Parker, G. R., Wannon, M., & Gribble, P. (1992b). Test comparisons among stress-affected, stress-resilient, and nonclassified fourth- through sixth-grade urban children. Journal of Community Psychology, 20(3), 200–214.<200::AID-JCOP2290200304>3.0.CO;2-W.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cowen, E. L., Work, W. C., Wyman, P. A., & Jarrell, D. D. (1994). Relationships between retrospective parent reports of developmental milestones and school adjustment at ages 10 to 12 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 33(3), 400–406. Scholar
  16. Cowen, E. L., Wyman, P. A., Work, W. C., Kim, J. Y., Fagen, D. B., & Magnus, K. B. (1997). Follow-up of young stress-affected and stress-resilient urban children. Development and Psychopathology, 9(3), 565–577. Scholar
  17. David, O. A., Ionicioiu, I., Imbăruş, A. C., & Sava, F. A. (2016). Coaching banking managers through the financial crisis: Effects on stress, resilience, and performance. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 34(4), 267–281. Scholar
  18. Dempsey, C. L. (2002). Post-traumatic stress disorder symptomatology among american indian vietnam veterans: Mediators and moderators of the stress-illness relationship. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved August 23, 2017 from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. AAI3021498).Google Scholar
  19. D'Imperio, R. L. (1996). Factors related to resilience for adolescents facing chronic adversity in an urban setting. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved August 23, 2017 from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. AAM9615323).Google Scholar
  20. D'Imperio, R. L., Dubow, E. F., & Ippolito, M. F. (2000). Resilient and stress-affected adolescents in an urban setting. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 29(1), 129–142. Scholar
  21. Dugué, M., Garncarzyk, C., & Dosseville, F. (2018). Déterminants psychologiques du stress chez les étudiants en soins infirmiers. Revue d'Épidémiologie et de Santé Publique.
  22. Edell-Gustaffson, U. M. (2002). Insufficient sleep, cognitive anxiety and health transition in men with coronary artery disease: A self-report and polysomnographic study. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 37(5), 414–422. Scholar
  23. Edell-Gustafsson, U. M., Kritz, E. I. K., & Bogren, I. K. (2002). Self-reported sleep quality, strain and health in relation to perceived working conditions in females. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 16(2), 179–187. Scholar
  24. Edell-Gustafsson, U. M., Gustavsson, G., & Uhlin, P. Y. (2003). Effects of sleep loss in men and women with insufficient sleep suffering from chronic disease: A model for supportive nursing care. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 9(1), 49–59. Scholar
  25. Eli, K., Sorjonen, K., Mokoena, L., Pietrobelli, A., Flodmark, C. E., Faith, M. S., & Nowicka, P. (2016). Associations between maternal sense of coherence and controlling feeding practices: The importance of resilience and support in families of preschoolers. Appetite, 105, 134–143. Scholar
  26. Ergeneli, A., Ilsev, A., & Karapınar, P. B. (2010). Work-family conflict and job satisfaction relationship: The roles of gender and interpretive habits. Gender, Work and Organization, 17(6), 679–695. Scholar
  27. Firk, C., & Markus, C. R. (2009). Mood and cortisol responses following tryptophan-rich hydrolyzed protein and acute stress in healthy subjects with high and low cognitive reactivity to depression. Clinical Nutrition, 28(3), 266–271. Scholar
  28. Galinowski, A., Miranda, R., Lemaitre, H., Paillere Martinot, M. L., Artiges, E., Vulser, H., et al. (2015). Resilience and corpus callosum microstructure in adolescence. Psychological Medicine, 45(11), 2285–2294. Scholar
  29. Gavett, R. A. (2014). Resilience to stress as a possible mechanism for cognitive superaging. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved August 23, 2017 from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. AAI3563720).Google Scholar
  30. Geva, N., Pruessner, J., & Defrin, R. (2017). Triathletes Lose Their Advantageous Pain Modulation under Acute Psychosocial Stress. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 49(2), 333–341. Scholar
  31. Gore, S., & Aseltine, H., Jr. (1995). Protective processes in adolescence: Matching stressors with social resources. American Journal of Community Psychology, 23(3), 301–327. Scholar
  32. Gribble, P. A., Cowen, E. L., Wyman, P. A., Work, W. C., Wannon, M., & Raoof, A. (1993). Parent and child views of parent-child relationship qualities and resilient outcomes among urban children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 34(4), 507–519.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Guille, C., Clark, S., Amstadter, A. B., & Sen, S. (2014). Trajectories of depressive symptoms in response to prolonged stress in medical interns. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 129(2), 109–115. Scholar
  34. Hegberg, N. J., & Tone, E. B. (2015). Physical activity and stress resilience: Considering those at-risk for developing mental health problems. Ment Health Phys Act, 8, 1–7.
  35. Henckens, M. J. A. G., Klumpers, F., Everaerd, D., Kooijman, S. C., van Wingen, G. A., & Fernández, G. (2016). Interindividual differences in stress sensitivity: Basal and stress-induced cortisol levels differentially predict neural vigilance processing under stress. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 11(4), 663–673. Scholar
  36. Hennig-Fast, K., Werner, N. S., Lermer, R., Latscha, K., Meister, F., Reiser, M., et al. (2009). After facing traumatic stress: Brain activation, cognition and stress coping in policemen. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 43(14), 1146–1155. Scholar
  37. Hicks, B. M., Johnson, W., Durbin, C. E., Blonigen, D. M., Iacono, W. G., & McGue, M. (2013). Gene–environment correlation in the development of adolescent substance abuse: Selection effects of child personality and mediation via contextual risk factors. Development and Psychopathology, 25(1), 119–132. Scholar
  38. Hicks, B. M., Iacono, W. G., & McGue, M. (2014a). Identifying childhood characteristics that underlie premorbid risk for substance use disorders: Socialization and boldness. Development and Psychopathology, 26(1), 141–157. Scholar
  39. Hicks, B. M., Johnson, W., Durbin, C. E., Blonigen, D. M., Iacono, W. G., & McGue, M. (2014b). Delineating selection and mediation effects among childhood personality and environmental risk factors in the development of adolescent substance abuse. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 42(5), 845–859. Scholar
  40. Honig, A. S., & Wang, Y. C. (1997). Child resilience in Taiwanese immigrant families as a function of maternal supports and maternal employment. Early Child Development and Care, 139(1), 43–48. Scholar
  41. Hoyt-Meyers, L., Cowen, E. L., Work, W. C., Wyman, P. A., Magnus, K., Fagen, D. B., & Lotyczewski, B. S. (1995). Test correlates of resilient outcomes among highly stressed second- and third-grade urban children. Journal of Community Psychology, 23(4), 326–338.<326::aid-jcop2290230405>;2-k.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hu, H. C., Deng, Y. L., Pan, C., Liang, Y. J., & Tang, Q. P. (2009). Preliminary study on Stress Resilience Quotient Scale among the elderly community-dwellers in Zhuzhou City. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology, 17(3), 318–320.Google Scholar
  43. Jackson, E. S. (2009). Stress resilience in African American adolescents: The role of culture-specific protective factors. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved August 23, 2017 from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. AAI3347138).Google Scholar
  44. John, B. S., Oliva, L. S., Buckwalter, J. G., Kwok, D., & Rizzo, A. Q. (2014). Self-reported differences in personality, emotion control, and presence between pre-military and non-military groups in a pilot study using the stress resilience in virtual environments (STRIVE) System. Paper presented at the Stud Health Technol Inform.Google Scholar
  45. Kilmer, R. P., Cowen, E. L., & Wyman, P. A. (2001). A micro-level analysis of development, parenting and family milieu variable that differentiate stress-resilient and stress-affected children. Journal of Community Psychology, 29(4), 391–416. Scholar
  46. Kinman, G., & Grant, L. (2011). Exploring stress resilience in trainee social workers: The role of emotional and social competencies. British Journal of Social Work, 41(2), 261–275. Scholar
  47. Kinser, P., Braun, S., Deeb, G., Carrico, C., & Dow, A. (2016). “Awareness is the first step”: An interprofessional course on mindfulness & mindful-movement for healthcare professionals and students. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 25, 18–25. Scholar
  48. Klein, K., Forehand, R., Armistead, L., & Wierson, M. (1994). The contributions of social support and coping methods to stress resiliency in couples facing hemophilia and HIV. Advances in Behaviour Research and Therapy, 16(4), 253–275. Scholar
  49. Krejčí, M., Kornatovská, Z., & Kokeš, R. (2014). Social benefits of adequate movement regime in teacher's stress resilience. Social Science International, 30(2), 301–315.Google Scholar
  50. Magnus, K. D., Cowen, E. L., Wyman, P. A., Fagen, D. D., & Work, W. C. (1999). Correlates of resilient outcomes among highly stressed African-American and white urban children. Journal of Community Psychology, 27(4), 473–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Matuszek, P. A. C. (2000). A biofeedback-enhanced stress management program for the fire service. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved August 23, 2017 from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. AEH9937681).Google Scholar
  52. McCallum, T. J., Sorocco, K. H., & Fritsch, T. (2006). Mental health and diurnal salivary cortisol patterns among African American and European American female dementia family caregivers. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 14(8), 684–693. Scholar
  53. Morgan III, C. A., Wang, S., Southwick, S. M., Rasmusson, A., Hazlett, G., Hauger, R. L., & Charney, D. S. (2000). Plasma neuropeptide-Y concentrations in humans exposed to military survival training. Biological Psychiatry, 47(10), 902–909.
  54. Nance, J. A. (2015). An exploration of heart rate variability biofeedback as an ancillary treatment for patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder, an initial feasibility study. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved August 23, 2017 from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 3619861).Google Scholar
  55. Neubauer, C., Khooshabeh, P., Woolley, J., & Scherer, S. (2016). Getting to know you: A multimodal investigation of team behavior and resilience to stress. Paper presented at the ICMI 2016 - Proceedings of the 18th ACM International Conference on Multimodal Interaction.Google Scholar
  56. Oldehinkel, A. J., Verhulst, F. C., & Ormel, J. (2008). Low heart rate: A marker of stress resilience. The TRAILS study. Biological Psychiatry, 63(12), 1141–1146. Scholar
  57. Parker, G. R., Cowen, E. L., Work, W. C., & Wyman, P. A. (1990). Test correlates of stress resilience among urban school children. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 11(1), 19–35. Scholar
  58. Peters, K. D. (2012). Attentuation of depressogenic attributional style through cognitive bias modification. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved August 23, 2017 from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. AAI3468119).Google Scholar
  59. Picardi, A., Bartone, P. T., Querci, R., Bitetti, D., Tarsitani, L., Roselli, V., et al. (2012). Development and validation of the Italian version of the 15-item Dispositional Resilience Scale. Rivista di Psichiatria, 47(3), 231–237. Scholar
  60. Pontremolesi, S., Biselli, R., Appiani, G. C., D'Amelio, R., Simona, S., & Patacchioli, F. R. (2012). Acute hypobaric-hypoxia challenge and salivary cortisol and DHEA-S in healthy male subjects. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 83(7), 637–642. Scholar
  61. Ramey, S. L., Perkhounkova, Y., Hein, M., Chung, S., Franke, W. D., & Anderson, A. A. (2016). Building Resilience in an Urban Police Department. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 58(8), 796–804. Scholar
  62. Rensberger, J. K. (2018). Stress hormones, heart rate variability, and resilience in Special Forces. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved November 14, 2018 from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. AAI10821752).Google Scholar
  63. Romanowska, J., Larsson, G., & Theorell, T. (2013). Effects on leaders of an art-based leadership intervention. The Journal of Management Development, 32(9), 1004–1022. Scholar
  64. Sah, R., Ekhator, N. N., Strawn, J. R., Sallee, F. R., Baker, D. G., Horn, P. S., & Geracioti, T. D. (2009). Low cerebrospinal fluid neuropeptide Y concentrations in posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 66(7), 705–707. Scholar
  65. Schaubroeck, J. M., Riolli, L. T., Peng, A. C., & Spain, E. S. (2011). Resilience to traumatic exposure among soldiers deployed in combat. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 16(1), 18–37. Scholar
  66. Selye, H. (1936). A syndrome produced by diverse nocuous agents. Nature, 138(3479), 32.Google Scholar
  67. Shields, G. S., Moons, W. G., & Slavich, G. M. (2017). Better executive function under stress mitigates the effects of recent life stress exposure on health in young adults. Stress, 20(1), 75–85. Scholar
  68. Sinclair, V. G., & Wallston, K. A. (2004). The development and psychometric evaluation of the Brief Resilient Coping Scale. Assessment, 11, 94–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Singh-Taylor, A., Molet, J., Jiang, S., Korosi, A., Bolton, J. L., Noam, Y., et al. (2017). NRSF-dependent epigenetic mechanisms contribute to programming of stress-sensitive neurons by neonatal experience, promoting resilience. Molecular Psychiatry.
  70. Smith, J., & Prior, M. (1995). Temperament and stress resilience in school-age children: A within-families study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34(2), 168–179. Scholar
  71. Wannon, M. (1990). Children's control beliefs about controllable and uncontrollable events: Their relationship to stress resilience and psychosocial adjustment. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved August 23, 2017 from from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database.Google Scholar
  72. Williams, P. G., Rau, H. K., Cribbet, M. R., & Gunn, H. E. (2009). Openness to experience and stress regulation. Journal of Research in Personality, 43(5), 777–784. Scholar
  73. Work, W. C., Cowen, E. L., Parker, G. R., & Wyman, P. A. (1990). Stress resilient children in an urban setting. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 11(1), 3–17. Scholar
  74. Wyman, P. A., Cowen, E. L., Work, W. C., & Parker, G. R. (1991). Developmental and family milieu correlates of resilience in urban children who have experienced major life stress. American Journal of Community Psychology, 19(3), 405–426. Scholar
  75. Wyman, P. A., Cowen, E. L., Work, W. C., Raoof, A., Gribble, P. A., Parker, G. R., & Wannon, M. (1992). Interviews with children who experienced major life stress: Family and child attributes that predict resilient outcomes. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31(5), 904–910. Scholar
  76. Yi, J. P., Smith, R. E., & Vitaliano, P. P. (2005). Stress-resilience, illness, and coping: A person-focused investigation of young women athletes. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 28(3), 257–265. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Josephine S. O’Donohue
    • 1
    Email author
  • Christopher Mesagno
    • 1
  • Brendan O’Brien
    • 1
  1. 1.Federation University AustraliaBallaratAustralia

Personalised recommendations