An experimental study of the effect of rumination processing modes on approach behavior in a task involving previous failure

  • Kohei KambaraEmail author
  • Yugo Kira
  • Akiko Ogata


Previous studies have found that rumination involves thoughts that usually occur during and influence affect after experiencing failure. However, little is known about how rumination directly affects approach behavior beyond that point. Therefore, we investigated the effects of rumination on approach behavior after failure. Forty-nine university students were allocated to one of either an abstract or concrete processing mode of rumination or a control condition. A failure experience was induced through a creative thinking task, and rumination was either manipulated or not depending on the group. The students then performed a task that was similar to the failure-inducing creative thinking task. Our analysis revealed that only the concrete processing mode of rumination improved participants’ negative affect and that the manipulation of rumination ultimately did not influence approach behavior after experiencing failure.


Rumination Approach behavior Processing modes Depression 



This research was supported in part by grant from the Hiroshima University Education and Research Support Foundation. The authors thank all of their colleagues who assisted in this study. We are grateful to Dr. Natalie J Ciarocco for her advice in this study and providing us some materials.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of EducationHiroshima UniversityHigashihiroshimaJapan

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