Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Parental smoking, changes in smoker image, and susceptibility to smoking in nonsmoking 10- to 12-year-olds

Abstract

The current study was designed to investigate whether parental cigarette smoking is associated with increased positivity in the smoker image during early adolescence. Participants (n = 432) were surveyed about parental smoking, smoker image, and susceptibility to smoking for three consecutive years beginning at age 10. Parental smoking was related to developmental increases in a positive smoker image. In addition, the slope of smoker image from age 10 to 12 was positively related to smoking susceptibility at age 12. Thus, before children are exposed to smoking peers, parental smoking is a risk factor for developing a positive smoker image and smoking onset.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  1. Aloise-Young, P., & Hennigan, K. (1996). Self-image, the smoker stereotype and cigarette smoking: Developmental patterns from fifth through eighth grade. Journal of Adolescence, 19(2), 163–177. https://doi.org/10.1006/jado.1996.0016.

  2. Aloise-Young, P., Hennigan, K., & Graham, J. (1996). Role of the self-image and smoker stereotype in smoking onset during early adolescence: A longitudinal study. Health Psychology, 15(6), 494–497. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.15.6.494.

  3. Aloise-Young, P., Slater, M., & Cruickshank, C. (2006). Mediators and moderators of magazine advertisement effects on adolescent cigarette smoking. Journal of Health Communication, 11(3), 281–300. https://doi.org/10.1080/10810730600613955.

  4. Andrews, J., & Peterson, M. (2006). The development of social images of substance users in children: A Guttman unidimensional scaling approach. Journal of Substance Use, 11(5), 305–321. https://doi.org/10.1080/1465980500419774.

  5. Andrews, J., Hampson, S., Barckley, M., Gerrard, M., & Gibbons, F. (2008). The effect of early cognitions on cigarette and alcohol use during adolescence. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 22(1), 96–106. https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-164X.22.1.96.

  6. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory.

  7. Best, J. A., Thomson, S. J., Santi, S. M., Smith, E. A., & Brown, K. S. (1988). Preventing cigarette smoking among school children. Annual Review of Public Health, 9(1), 161–201.

  8. Blanton, H., Gibbons, F., Gerrard, M., Conger, K., & Smith, G. (1997). Role of family and peers in the development of prototypes associated with substance use. Journal of Family Psychology, 11(3), 271–288. https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.11.3.271.

  9. Bollen, K., & Curran, P. (2006). Latent curve models: A structural equation perspective.

  10. Chassin L, Presson CC. (2003). Parental smoking cessation and adolescent smoking: A commentary on Bricker et al. Addiction, 98(5):595–596. https://ezproxy2.library.colostate.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,url,cpid&custid=s4640792&db=cin20&AN=106851544&site=ehost-live. Accessed 1 Feb 2019.

  11. Choi, W., Gilpin, E., Farkas, A., & Pierce, J. (2001). Determining the probability of future smoking among adolescents. Addiction, 96(2), 313–323. https://doi.org/10.1080/09652140020021053.

  12. Dong, Y., & Peng, C. Y. (2013). Principled missing data methods for researchers. Springerplus., 2(1), 222. Published 2013 May 14. https://doi.org/10.1186/2193-1801-2-222.

  13. Evans, W., Powers, A., Hersey, J., & Renaud, J. (2006). The influence of social environment and social image on adolescent smoking. Health Psychology, 25(1), 26–33. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.25.1.26.

  14. Farrelly, M., Healton, C., Davis, K., Messeri, P., Hersey, J., & Haviland, M. (2002). Getting to the truth: Evaluating national tobacco countermarketing campaigns. American Journal of Public Health, 92(6), 901–907. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.92.6.901.

  15. Fearnow, M., Chassin, L., Presson, C. C., & Sherman, S. J. (1998). Determinants of parental attempts to deter their children’s cigarette smoking. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 19(3), 453–468. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0193-3973(99)80050-1.

  16. Forrester, K., Biglan, A., Severson, H., & Smolkowski, K. (2007). Predictors of smoking onset over two years. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 9(12), 1259–1267. https://doi.org/10.1080/14622200701705357.

  17. Gerrard, M., Gibbons, F., Stock, M., Vande Lune, L., & Cleveland, M. (2005). Images of smokers and willingness to smoke among African American pre-adolescents: An application of the prototype/willingness model of adolescent health risk behavior to smoking initiation. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 30(4), 305–318. https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jsi026.

  18. Gerrard, M., Gibbons, F., Houlihan, A., Stock, M., & Pomery, E. (2008). A dual-process approach to health risk decision making: The prototype willingness model. Developmental Review, 28(1), 29–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dr.2007.10.001.

  19. Gibbons, F., Gerrard, M., Lune, L., Wills, T., Brody, G., & Conger, R. (2004). Context and cognitions: Environmental risk, social influence, and adolescent substance use. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30(8), 1048–1061. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167204264788.

  20. Gilman, S., Rende, R., Niaura, R., et al. (2009). Parental smoking and adolescent smoking initiation: An intergenerational perspective on tobacco control. Pediatrics, 123(2), e274–e281. Available from: PsycINFO, Ipswich, MA. Accessed 7 Nov 2017. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2008-2251.

  21. Henriksen, L., & Jackson, C. (1998). Anti-smoking socialization: Relationship to parent and child smoking status. Health Communication, 10(1), 87–101. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327027hc1001.

  22. Henriksen, L., Schleicher, N., Feighery, E., & Fortmann, S. (2010). A longitudinal study of exposure to retail cigarette advertising and smoking initiation. Pediatrics, 126(2), 232–238. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2009-3021.

  23. Hovanec, J., Siemiatycki, J., Conway, D. I., Olsson, A., Stücker, I., Guida, F., Jöckel, K. H., Pohlabeln, H., Ahrens, W., Brüske, I., Wichmann, H. E., Gustavsson, P., Consonni, D., Merletti, F., Richiardi, L., Simonato, L., Fortes, C., Parent, M. E., McLaughlin, J., Demers, P., Landi, M. T., Caporaso, N., Tardón, A., Zaridze, D., Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N., Rudnai, P., Lissowska, J., Fabianova, E., Field, J., Dumitru, R. S., Bencko, V., Foretova, L., Janout, V., Kromhout, H., Vermeulen, R., Boffetta, P., Straif, K., Schüz, J., Kendzia, B., Pesch, B., Brüning, T., & Behrens, T. (2018). Lung cancer and socioeconomic status in a pooled analysis of case-control studies. PLoS One, 13(2), e0192999. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0192999.

  24. Jackson, C. (1998). Cognitive susceptibility to smoking and initiation of smoking during childhood: A longitudinal study. Preventive Medicine, 27, 129–134. https://doi.org/10.1006/pmed.1997.0255.

  25. Jackson, C., & Dickinson, D. (2003). Can parents who smoke socialise their children against smoking? Results from the smoke-free kids intervention trial. Tobacco Control, 12, 52–59.

  26. Jackson, C., & Henriksen, L. (1997). Do as I say: Parent smoking, antismoking socialization, and smoking onset among children. Addictive Behaviors, 22(1), 107–114.

  27. Kodl, M., & Mermelstein, R. (2004). Beyond modeling: Parenting practices, parental smoking history, and adolescent cigarette smoking. Addictive Behaviors, 29(1), 17–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0306-4603(03)00087-X.

  28. Leatherdale, S., McDonald, P., Cameron, R., Jolin, M., & Brown, K. (2006). A multi-level analysis examining how smoking friends, parents, and older students in the school environment are risk factors for susceptibility to smoking among non-smoking elementary school youth. Prevention Science, 7(4), 397–402. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-0060049-y.

  29. Leonardi-Bee, J., Jere, M. L., & Britton, J. (2011). Exposure to parental and sibling smoking and the risk of smoking uptake in childhood and adolescence: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Thorax., 66(10), 847–855.

  30. Mays, D., Gilman, S. E., Rende, R., Luta, G., Tercyak, K. P., & Niaura, R. S. (2014). Parental smoking exposure and adolescent smoking trajectories. Pediatrics, 133(6), 983–991. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2013-3003.

  31. McArdle, J. (1988). Dynamic but structural equation modeling of repeated measures data. In R. B. Cattel & J. Nesslroade (Eds.), Handbook of multivariate experimental psychology (2nd ed., pp. 561–614). New York: Plenrun Press.

  32. Mercken, L., Sleddens, E. F. C., de Vries, H., & Steglich, C. E. G. (2013). Choosing adolescent smokers as friends: The role of parenting and parental smoking. Journal of Adolescence, 36(2), 383–392. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2012.12.004.

  33. O’Loughlin, J., O’Loughlin, E. K., Wellman, R. J., Sylvestre, M.-P., Dugas, E. N., Chagnon, M., et al. (2017). Predictors of cigarette smoking initiation in early, middle, and late adolescence. Journal of Adolescent Health, 61(3), 363–370. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2016.12.026.

  34. Pardini, D., Loeber, R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (2005). Developmental shifts in parent and peer influences on Boys' beliefs about delinquent behavior. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 15(3), 299–323. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2005.00098.x.

  35. Pierce, J., Choi, W., Gilpin, E., Farkas, A., & Merritt, R. (1996). Validation of susceptibility as a predictor of which adolescents take up smoking in the United States. Health Psychology, 15(5), 355–361. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.15.5.355.

  36. Piko, B., Bak, J., & Gibbons, F. (2007). Prototype perception and smoking: Are negative or positive social images more important in adolescence? Addictive Behaviors, 32(8), 1728–1732. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2006.12.003.

  37. Polańska, K., Wojtysiak, P., Bąk-Romaniszyn, L., & Kaleta, D. (2016). Susceptibility to cigarette smoking among secondary and high school students from a socially disadvantaged rural area in Poland. Tobacco Induced Diseases, 14, 28. Published 2016 Aug 15. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12971-016-0092-9.

  38. Prokhorov, A., de Moor, C., Hudmon, K., Hu, S., Kelder, S., & Gritz, E. (2002). Predicting initiation of smoking in adolescents: Evidence for integrating the stages of change and susceptibility to smoking constructs. Addictive Behaviors, 27(5), 697–712. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0306-4603(01)00203-9.

  39. Rosa, J., Aloise-Young, P., & Henry, K. (2014). Using motives for smoking to distinguish between different college student smoker typologies. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 28(4), 1297–1304. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0038355.

  40. Schuck, K., Otten, R., Engels, R. E., & Kleinjan, M. (2012). The role of environmental smoking in smoking-related cognitions and susceptibility to smoking in never-smoking 9–12year-old children. Addictive Behaviors, 37(12), 1400–1405. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2012.06.019.

  41. Spijkerman, R., Van Den Eijnden, R., & Engels, R. (2007). Perceptions of smoking and nonsmoking peers: The value of smoker and nonsmoker prototypes in predicting smoking onset and regular smoking among adolescents. Health Education & Behavior, 34(6), 897–910. https://doi.org/10.1177/1090198106294642.

  42. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2014). The health consequences of smoking: 50 years of Progress. A report of the surgeon general. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health.

  43. van Lettow, B., de Vries, H., Burdorf, A., & van Empelen, P. (2016). Quantifying the strength of the associations of prototype perceptions with behaviour, behavioural willingness and intentions: A meta-analysis. Health Psychology Review, 10(1), 25–43. https://doi.org/10.1080/17437199.2014.941997.

  44. Vidrine, J. I., Reitzel, L. R., & Wetter, D. W. (2009). Tobacco’s role in Cancer health disparities. Current Oncology Reports, 11(6), 475–481.

  45. Weinstein, S., Mermelstein, R., Hedeker, D., Hankin, B., & Flay, B. (2006). The time-varying influences of peer and family support on adolescent daily positive and negative affect. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 35(3), 420–430. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp3503_7.

  46. Wellman, R., Dugas, E., O'Loughlin, J., et al. (2016). Predictors of the onset of cigarette smoking: A systematic review of longitudinal population-based studies in youth. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 51(5), 767–778. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2016.04.003.

  47. Widaman, K., Ferrer, E., & Conger, R. (2010). Factorial invariance within longitudinal structural equation models: Measuring the same construct across time. Child Development Perspectives, 4(1), 10–18. Available from: PsycINFO, Ipswich, MA. Accessed 7 Nov 2017. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-8606.2009.00110.x.

Download references

Funding

This research was supported by the Colorado Tobacco Research Program grant 1R-0033 and by NIDA grant 1K01DA14271-01A1.

Author information

Correspondence to Patricia A. Aloise-Young.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

The authors have no conflict of interest to declare.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Aloise-Young, P.A., Rosa, J.D. Parental smoking, changes in smoker image, and susceptibility to smoking in nonsmoking 10- to 12-year-olds. Curr Psychol (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-019-00223-y

Download citation

Keywords

  • Smoking susceptibility
  • Smoker image
  • Early adolescence
  • Parent smoking
  • Prototypes