Advertisement

Academic procrastination and academic performance: Do learning disabilities matter?

  • Marina GoroshitEmail author
  • Meirav Hen
Article
  • 223 Downloads

Abstract

The growing number of students with learning disabilities (LD) in higher education increases the need to understand and address the factors that affect their academic performance. One of these factors is academic procrastination, which affects over 70% of college students, including students with LD. The present study examined the relationship between academic procrastination and academic performance, and the moderating role of LD in this relationship. Findings showed a negative effect of academic procrastination on GPA, and more strongly for students with LD, indicating that a high-level of procrastination might be more harmful for these students’ academic performance. These initial findings contribute to the body of knowledge concerning students with LD in higher education. They emphasize the need to support students with LD in a manner that will address the specific difficulties that may lead to higher rates of procrastination and subsequently lower academic achievement.

Keywords

Learning disabilities GPA Academic procrastination 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

All the authors declare that they have no conflict of interest in pursuing this publication.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies or experiments with animals.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

References

  1. Andreassen, R., Jensen, M. S., & Bråten, I. (2017). Investigating self-regulated study strategies among postsecondary students with and without dyslexia: A diary method study. Reading and Writing, 30(9), 1891–1916.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-017-9758-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Babakus, E., & Mangold, W. G. (1992). Adapting the SERVQUAL scale to hospital services: An empirical investigation. Health Services Research, 26(6), 767–786.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Baird, G., Scott, W., Dearing, E., & Hamill, S. (2009). Cognitive self-regulation in youth with and without learning disabilities: Academic self-efficacy, theories of intelligence, learning versus performance goal preferences, and effort attributions. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 28(7), 881–908.  https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2009.28.7.881.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Balkis, M. (2013). The relationship between academic procrastination and students’ burnout. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 28(1), 68–78.Google Scholar
  5. Balkis, M., Duru, E., & Bulus, M. (2013). Analysis of the relation between academic procrastination, academic rational/irrational beliefs, time preferences to study for exams, and academic achievement: A structural model. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 28(3), 825–839.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10212-012-0142-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bearden, W. O., Netemeyer, R., & Mobley, M. F. (1993). Handbook of marketing scales: Multi-item measures for marketing and consumer behavior research. Newbury Park: Sage.Google Scholar
  7. Boardman, A. G., Vaughn, S., Buckley, P., Reutebuch, C., Roberts, G., & Klingner, J. (2016). Collaborative strategic reading for students with learning disabilities in upper elementary classrooms. Exceptional Children, 82(4), 409–427.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0014402915625067.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Corkin, D. M., Yu, S. L., Wolters, C. A., & Wiesner, M. (2014). The role of the college classroom climate on academic procrastination. Learning and Individual Differences, 32, 294–303.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2014.04.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cortiella, C., & Horowitz, S. H. (2014). The State of learning disabilities facts, trends and emerging issues (Third). New-York: National Center for Learning Disabilities. http://dx.doi.org/ncld.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/2014-State-of-LD.pdf.
  10. Dunn, K. (2014). Why wait? The influence of academic self-regulation, intrinsic motivation, and statistics anxiety on procrastination in online statistics. Innovative Higher Education, 39(1), 33–44.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10755-013-9256-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Eckert, M., Ebert, D. D., Lehr, D., Sieland, B., & Berking, M. (2016). Overcome procrastination: Enhancing emotion regulation skills reduce procrastination. Learning and Individual Differences, 52, 10–18.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2016.10.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Eggens, L., van der Werf, M. P. C., & Bosker, R. J. (2008). The influence of personal networks and social support on study attainment of students in university education. Higher Education, 55(5), 553–573.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-007-9074-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fernie, B. A., Bharucha, Z., Nikčević, A. V., Marino, C., & Spada, M. M. (2017). A Metacognitive model of procrastination. Journal of Affective Disorders, 210, 196–203.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2016.12.042.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ferrari, J. R. (2010). Still procrastinating? The no regrets guide to getting it done. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  15. Glick, D. M., Millstein, D. J., & Orsillo, S. M. (2014). A preliminary investigation of the role of psychological inflexibility in academic procrastination. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 3, 81–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Goroshit, M. (2018). Academic procrastination and academic performance: An initial basis for intervention. Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, 46(2), 131–142.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10852352.2016.1198157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Grund, A., & Fries, S. (2018). Understanding procrastination: A motivational approach. Personality and Individual Differences, 121, 120–130.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.09.035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Grunschel, C., Patrzek, J., & Fries, S. (2013). Exploring reasons and consequences of academic procrastination: An interview study. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 28(3), 841–861.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10212-012-0143-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Häfner, A., Oberst, V., & Stock, A. (2014). Avoiding procrastination through time management: An experimental intervention study. Educational Studies, 40(3), 352–360.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03055698.2014.899487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hayes, A. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  21. Hen, M. (2018). Academic procrastination and feelings toward procrastination in LD and non-LD students: Preliminary insights for future intervention. Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, 46(2), 199–212.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10852352.2016.1198173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hen, M., & Goroshit, M. (2014). Academic procrastination, emotional intelligence, academic self-efficacy, and GPA: A comparison between students with and without learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 47(2), 116–124.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219412439325.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Katz, I., Eilot, K., & Nevo, N. (2014). “I’ll do it later”: Type of motivation, self-efficacy and homework procrastination. Motivation and Emotion, 38(1), 111–119.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-013-9366-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kim, K. R., & Seo, E. H. (2015). The relationship between procrastination and academic performance: A meta-analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 82, 26–33.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.02.038.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kitsantas, A., & Zimmerman, B. J. (2009). College students’ homework and academic achievement: The mediating role of self-regulatory beliefs. Metacognition Learning, 4(2), 97–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Klassen, R. M., Krawchuk, L. L., Lynch, S. L., & Rajani, S. (2008a). Procrastination and motivation of undergraduates with learning disabilities: A mixed-methods inquiry. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 23(3), 137–147.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5826.2008.00271.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Klassen, R. M., Krawchuk, L. L., & Rajani, S. (2008b). Academic procrastination of undergraduates: Low self-efficacy to self-regulate predicts higher levels of procrastination. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33(4), 915–931.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2007.07.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Klassen, R. M., Ang, R. P., Chong, W. H., Krawchuk, L. L., Huan, V. S., Wong, I. Y. F., & Yeo, L. S. (2009). Academic procrastination in two settings: Motivation correlates, behavioral patterns, and negative impact of procrastination in Canada and Singapore. Applied Psychology, 59(3), 361–379.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2009.00394.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Klassen, R. M., Tze, V., & Hannok, W. (2013). Internalizing problems of adults with learning disabilities: A meta-analysis. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 46(4), 317–327.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219411422260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Klingsieck, K. B., Fries, S., Horz, C., & Hofer, M. (2012). Procrastination in a distance university setting. Distance Education, 33(3), 295–310.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01587919.2012.723165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Krause, K., & Freund, A. M. (2014a). Delay or procrastination – A comparison of self-report and behavioral measures of procrastination and their impact on affective well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 63, 75–80.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2014.01.050.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Krause, K., & Freund, A. M. (2014b). How to beat procrastination. European Psychologist, 19(2), 132–144.  https://doi.org/10.1027/1016-9040/a000153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Levy, Y., & Ramim, M. M. (2012). A study of online exams procrastination using data analytics techniques. Interdisciplinary Journal of E-Learning and Learning Objects, 8, 97–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Malatincová, T. (2015). The mystery of “should”: Procrastination, delay, and reactance in academic settings. Personality and Individual Differences, 72, 52–58.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2014.08.015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mann, L. (2016). Procrastination revisited: A commentary. Australian Psychologist, 51(1), 47–51.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ap.12208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Marton-Williams, J. (1986). Questionnaire design. In R. Worcester & J. Downham (Eds.), Consumer market research handbook. London, McGraw-Hill Book Company.Google Scholar
  37. Michinov, N., Brunot, S., Le Bohec, O., Juhel, J., & Delaval, M. (2011). Procrastination, participation, and performance in online learning environments. Computers & Education, 56(1), 243–252.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2010.07.025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Milgram, N. N., & Amir, N. (1998). Academic procrastination in pre-, early and late adolescence. Unpubished report. Tel-Aviv University and the college of Judea and Samaria.Google Scholar
  39. Milgram, N. (. N.)., Mey-Tal, G., & Levison, Y. (1998). Procrastination, generalized or specific, in college students and their parents. Personality and Individual Differences, 25(2), 297–316.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(98)00044-0.
  40. Nonis, S. A., & Hudson, G. I. (2006). Academic performance of college students: Influence of time spent studying and working. Journal of Education for Business, 81(3), 151–159.  https://doi.org/10.3200/JOEB.81.3.151-159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Odaci, H. (2011). Academic self-efficacy and academic procrastination as predictors of problematic internet use in university students. Computers & Education, 57(1), 1109–1113.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2011.01.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Onji, K., & Kikuchi, R. (2011). Procrastination, prompts, and preferences: Evidence from daily records of self-directed learning activities. Journal of Socio-Economics, 40(6), 929–941.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2004). Academic procrastination and statistics anxiety. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 29(1), 3–19.  https://doi.org/10.1080/0260293042000160384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Owens, S. G., Bowman, C. G., & Dill, C. A. (2008). Overcoming procrastination: The effect of implementation intentions. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 38(2), 366–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Pychyl, T. A., & Flett, G. L. (2012). Procrastination and self-regulatory failure: An introduction to the special issue. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 30(4), 203–212.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10942-012-0149-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rabin, L. A., Fogel, J., & Nutter-Upham, K. E. (2011). Academic procrastination in college students: The role of self-reported executive function. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 33(3), 344–357.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13803395.2010.518597.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Reed, M. J., Kennett, D. J., Lewis, T., Lund-Lucas, E., Stallberg, C., & Newbold, I. L. (2009). The relative effects of university success courses and individualized interventions for students with learning disabilities. Higher Education Research & Development, 28(4), 385–400.  https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360903067013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Reed, M. J., Kennett, D. J., Lewis, T., & Lund-Lucas, E. (2011). The relative benefits found for students with and without learning disabilities taking a first-year university preparation course. Active Learning in Higher Education, 12(2), 133–142.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1469787411402483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rice, K. G., Richardson, C. M. E., & Clark, D. (2012). Perfectionism, procrastination, and psychological distress. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 59(2), 288–302.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0026643.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Rosenberg, M. S., Bott, D., Majsterek, D., Chiang, B., Gartland, D., Wesson, C., et al. (1992). Minimum standards for the description of participants in learning disabilities research. Learning Disability Quarterly, 15(1), 65–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Schraw, G., Wadkins, T., & Olafson, L. (2007). Doing the things we do: A grounded theory of academic procrastination. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(1), 12–25.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.99.1.12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sirois, F. M. (2014a). Out of sight, out of time? A meta-analytic investigation of procrastination and time perspective. European Journal of Personality, 28(5), 511–520.  https://doi.org/10.1002/per.1947.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sirois, F. M. (2014b). Procrastination and stress: Exploring the role of self-compassion. Self and Identity, 13(2), 128–145.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15298868.2013.763404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sirois, F., & Pychyl, T. (2013). Procrastination and the priority of short-term mood regulation: Consequences for future self. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 7(2), 115–127.  https://doi.org/10.1111/spc3.12011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Sparks, R. L., & Lovett, B. J. (2009). College students with learning disability diagnoses: Who are they and how do they perform? Journal of Learning Disabilities, 42(6), 494–510.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219409338746.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sparks, R. L., & Lovett, B. J. (2014). Learning disability documentation in higher education. Learning Disability Quarterly, 37(1), 54–62.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0731948713486888.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Steel, P. (2007). The nature of procrastination: A meta-analytic and theoretical review of quintessential self-regulatory failure. Psychological Bulletin, 133(1), 65–94.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.133.1.65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Steel, P., & Klingsieck, K. B. (2016). Academic procrastination: Psychological antecedents revisited. Australian Psychologist, 51(1), 36–46.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ap.12173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Stewart, M., Stott, T., & Nuttall, A.-M. (2016). Study goals and procrastination tendencies at different stages of the undergraduate degree. Studies in Higher Education, 41(11), 2028–2043.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2015.1005590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Trainin, G., & Swanson, H. L. (2005). Cognition, metacognition, and achievement of college students with learning disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 28(4), 261–272.  https://doi.org/10.2307/4126965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Troiano, P. F., Liefeld, J. A., & Trachtenberg, J. V. (2010). Academic support and college success for postsecondary students with learning disabilities. Journal of College Reading and Learning, 40(2), 35–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Visser, L., Korthagen, F. A. J., & Schoonenboom, J. (2018). Differences in learning characteristics between students with high, average, and low levels of academic procrastination: Students’ views on factors influencing their learning. Frontiers in Psychology, 9.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00808.
  63. Wolters, C. A., Won, S., & Hussain, M. (2017). Examining the relations of time management and procrastination within a model of self-regulated learning. Metacognition and Learning, 12(3), 381–399.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11409-017-9174-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Yerdelen, S., McCaffrey, A., & Klassen, R. M. (2016). Longitudinal examination of procrastination and anxiety, and their relation to self-efficacy for self-regulated learning: Latent growth curve modeling. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 16(1), 5–22.  https://doi.org/10.12738/estp.2016.1.0108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Zacks, S., & Hen, M. (2018). Academic interventions for academic procrastination: A review of the literature. Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, 46(2), 117–130.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10852352.2016.1198154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyTel-Hai Academic CollegeQiryat ShemonaIsrael

Personalised recommendations