Advertisement

The positive and negative rumination scale: Development and preliminary validation

  • Hongfei Yang
  • Zhong Wang
  • Jiaxiu Song
  • Jiale Lu
  • Xiaowei Huang
  • Zhaofeng Zou
  • Linhui Pan
Article
  • 67 Downloads

Abstract

Two studies with data from 1671 students are presented describing the development and preliminary validation of the Positive and Negative Rumination Scale (PANRS), a brief measure with 2 s-order factors: Positive Rumination consisting of 2 first-order factors (i.e., Enjoy Happiness and Positive Coping) and Negative Rumination consisting of 3 first-order factors (i.e., Suppress Happiness, Self Deny and Negative Attribution). Results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the measure’s 5 first-order and 2 s-order factors structure. Moreover, correlation analyses provided first evidence for the subscales’ differential validity: Positive Rumination showed positive correlations with positive indicators of psychological adjustment (e.g., life satisfaction) and negative correlations with negative indicators of psychological adjustment (e.g., depression), whereas Negative Rumination showed negative correlations with positive indicators of psychological adjustment (e.g., life satisfaction) and positive correlations with negative indicators of psychological adjustment (e.g., depression). In addition, all PANRS scores showed satisfactory reliability (Cronbach’s alpha) and temporal stability (test-retest). Overall the findings suggest that the PANRS is a reliable and valid instrument to assess positive and negative aspects of Rumination.

Keywords

Positive rumination Negative rumination Life satisfaction Depression 

Notes

Funding

This study was funded by Zhejiang Provincial Philosophy and Social Science Research Program of China (17NDJC198YB) and Humanities and Social Sciences of Ministry of Education Planning Fund (17YJA1900144).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were approved by the Research Committee of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences at Zhejiang University.

Conflict of Interest

We declare that we do not have any commercial or associative interest that represents a conflict of interest in connection with the work submitted.

Grant

Hongfei Yang has received a grant from Zhejiang Provincial Philosophy and Social Science Research Program of China (17NDJC198YB) and a grant from Humanities and Social Sciences of Ministry of Education Planning Fund (17YJA1900144).

Supplementary material

References

  1. Barnard, P., Watkins, E., Mackintosh, B., & Nimmo-Smith, I. (2007). Getting stuck in a mental rut: Some process and experiential attributes. In Paper presented at the 35th congress of the British Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapies. Brighton: England.Google Scholar
  2. Beckwé, M., & Deroost, N. (2016). Attentional biases in ruminators and worriers. Psychological Research, 80, 952–962.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Brislin, R. W. (1970). Back-translation for cross-cultural research. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 1, 185–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brown, T. A. (2006). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  5. Cann, A., Calhoun, L. G., Tedeschi, R. G., Triplett, K. N., Vishnevsky, T., & Lindstrom, C. M. (2011). Assessing posttraumatic cognitive processes: The event related rumination inventory. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 24(2), 137–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chang, E. C., Tsai, W., & Sanna, L. J. (2010). Examining the relations between rumination and adjustment: Do ethnic differences exist between Asian and European Americans? Asian American Journal of Psychology, 1(1), 46–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  8. Cohen, S., Karmarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behaviour, 24, 385–396.Google Scholar
  9. Conway, M., Csank, P. A. R., Holm, S. L., & Blake, C. K. (2000). On assessing individual differences in rumination on sadness. Journal of Personality Assessment, 75(3), 404–425.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Davis, R. N., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2000). Cognitive inflexibility among ruminators and nonruminators. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 24(6), 699–711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Diener, E., Emmons, R., Larsen, J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71–75.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Eisma, M. C., Stroebe, M. S., Schut, H. A., Van Den Bout, J., Boelen, P. A., & Stroebe, W. (2014). Development and psychometric evaluation of the Utrecht grief rumination scale. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 36(1), 165–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Feldman, G. C., Joormann, J., & Johnson, S. L. (2008). Responses to positive affect: A self-report measure of rumination and dampening. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 32, 507–525.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Ferdek, M. A., van Rijn, C. M., & Wyczesany, M. (2015). Depressive rumination and the emotional control circuit: An EEG localization and effective connectivity study. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 16(6), 1099–1113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Frost, R. O., Heimberg, R. G., Holt, C. S., Mattia, J. I., Neubauer, A. L. (1993). A comparison of two measures of perfection. Personality and Individual Differences, 14, 119–126.Google Scholar
  16. Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (1998). Multivariate Data Analysis with Readings (5th ed.pp. 47–49). Upper Saddle River.Google Scholar
  17. Han, X., & Yang, H. (2009). Chinese version of Nolen-Hoeksema ruminative responses scale (RRS) used in 912 college students: Reliability and validity (in Chinese). Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology, 17(5), 550–551 549.Google Scholar
  18. Hoyle, R. H., & Panter, A. T. (1995). Writing about structural equation models. In R. H. Hoyle (Ed.), Structural equation modeling: Concepts, issues, and applications (pp. 158–176). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  19. Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1995). Evaluating model fit. In R. Hoyle (Ed.), Structural equation modeling: Concepts, issues, and applications (pp. 76–99). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  20. Hughes, M. E., Waite, L. J., Hawkley, L. C., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2004). A short scale for measuring loneliness in large surveys. Research on Aging, 26, 655–672.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Joorman, J., Dkane, M., & Gotlib, I. H. (2006). Adaptive and maladaptive components of rumination? Diagnostic specificity and relation to depressive biases. Behavior Therapy, 37, 269–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kavadia, N., Polemidia, K., & Cyprus, L. (2013). Coefficient alpha interpret with caution. Europe's Journal of Psychology, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  23. Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  24. MacCallum, R. C., Browne, M. W., & Sugawara, H. M. (1996). Power analysis and determination of sample size for covariance structure modeling. Psychological Methods, 1, 130–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Maree, M., & Abbott, M. J. (2017). Negative rumination in social anxiety: A randomised trial investigating the effects of a brief intervention on cognitive processes before, during and after a social situation. Journal of Behavioral Therapy & Experimental Psychiatry, 55, 73–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Martin, L., & Tesser, A. (1996). Some ruminative thoughts. In R. Wyer (Ed.), Advances in Social Cognition (Vol. 1, pp. 1–47). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  27. McDonald, R. P., & Ho, M.-H. R. (2002). Principles and practice in reporting structural equation analyses. Psychological Methods, 7, 64–82.Google Scholar
  28. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Morrow, J. (1991). A prospective study of depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms after a natural disaster: The Loma Prieta earthquake. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1, 115–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Parker, L. E., & Larson, J. (1994). Ruminative coping with depressed mood following loss. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 92–104.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Wisco, B. E., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2008). Rethinking rumination. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3, 400–424.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Peled, M., & Moretti, M. M. (2007). Rumination on anger and sadness in adolescence: Fueling of fury and deepening of despair. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 36, 66–75.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Pfeiler, T, M., Wenzel, M., Weber, H., & Kubiak, T. (2017). Adaptive modes of rumination: The role of subjective anger. Cognition and Emotion, 31, 580–589.Google Scholar
  33. Prinz, U., Nutzinger, D. O., Schulz, H., Petermann, F., Braukhaus, C., & Andreas, S. (2013). Comparative psychometric analyses of the SCL-90-R and its short versions in patients with affective disorders. BMC Psychiatry, 104, 1–9.Google Scholar
  34. Russell, D., Peplau, L. A., & Cutrona, C. E. (1980). The revised UCLA loneliness scale: Concurrent and discriminant validity evidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 472–480.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Satorra, A., & Bentler, P. M. (1994). Corrections to test statistics and standard errors in covariance structure analysis. In A. von Eye & C. C. Clogg (Eds.), Latent variables analysis: Applications for developmental research (pp. 399–419). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  36. Scheier, M. F., Carver, C. S., & Bridges, M. W. (1994). Distinguishing optimism from neuroticism (and trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self-esteem): A re-evaluation of the life orientation test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 1063–1078.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Scott Jr., V. B., & McIntosh, W. D. (1999). The development of a trait measure of ruminative thought. Personality and Individual Differences, 26, 1045–1056.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Smith, J. M. & Alloy, L. B. (2009). A roadmap to rumination: A review of the definition, assessment, and conceptualization of this multifaceted construct. Clinical Psychology Review, 29, 116–128.Google Scholar
  39. Stephanie, D., Smith, S. D., Stephens, H. F., Repper, K., & Kistner, J. A. (2016). The relationship between anger rumination and aggression in typically developing children and high-risk adolescents. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 38, 515–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Stroud, C. B., Sosoo, E. E., & Wilson, S. (2018). Rumination, excessive reassurance seeking, and stress generation among early adolescent girls. Journal of Early Adolescence, 38, 139–163.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Sukhodolsky, D. G., Golub, A., & Cromwell, E. N. (2001). Development and validation of the anger rumination scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 5(1), 689–700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2001). Using multivariate statistics. 4. Needham Heights: Pearson.Google Scholar
  43. Topper, M., Emmelkamp, P. M. G., Watkins, E., & Ehring, T. (2017). Prevention of anxiety disorders and depression by targeting excessive worry and rumination in adolescents and young adults: A randomized controlled trial. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 90, 123–136.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Treynor, W., Gonzalez, R., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2003). Rumination reconsidered: A psychometric analysis. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 27, 247–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wang, D. (1995). The reliability and validity of UCLA loneliness scale of Chinese version (in Chinese). Journal of Clinical Psychology, 3(1), 20–24.Google Scholar
  46. Watkins, E. R. (2008). Constructive and unconstructive repetitive thought. Psychological Bulletin, 134(2), 163–206.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. Whiteman, R. C., & Mangels, J. A. (2016). Rumination and rebound from failure as a function of gender and time on task. Brain Science, 6(7), 1–26.Google Scholar
  48. Yang, H., & Guo, W. (2014). Chinese version of the Response to Positive Affect Questionnaire: Testing the factor structure, reliability, and validity in a college student sample. Psychological Reports: Measures & Statistics, 115, 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Yang, H., Guo, W., Yu, S., Chen, L., Zhang, H., Pan, L., Wang, C., & Chang, E. C. (2016). Personal and family perfectionism in elementary and high school students: Relationships with learning stress, learning satisfaction and self-reported academic performance level. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25, 3675–3683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Zhou, X., & Wu, X. (2016). The relationship between rumination, posttraumatic stress disorder, and posttraumatic growth among Chinese adolescents after earthquake: A longitudinal study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 193, 242–248.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hongfei Yang
    • 1
  • Zhong Wang
    • 2
  • Jiaxiu Song
    • 1
  • Jiale Lu
    • 1
  • Xiaowei Huang
    • 1
  • Zhaofeng Zou
    • 1
  • Linhui Pan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychology and Behavioral SciencesZhejiang UniversityZhejiangPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.First affiliated hospitalZhejiang UniversityZhejiangChina

Personalised recommendations