Does being positive work in a mediterranean collectivist culture? Relationship of core self-evaluations to job satisfaction, life satisfaction, and commitment

  • Sait GurbuzEmail author
  • Robert Costigan
  • Kadir Teke


The vast majority of the core self-evaluations (CSE) studies has been conducted in Western cultures. In an attempt to extend this research into a different culture, the present study tested the factor structure of a Turkish version of the CSE scale and examined the relationship of CSE to job satisfaction, life satisfaction, and affective commitment. Data were collected in student (n = 216) and field samples (n = 321). The results confirmed the proposed one-factor structure of the Turkish version of the CSE scale as well as its convergent and discriminant validity. CSE (measured in time period 1) was significantly related to job satisfaction, life satisfaction, and affective commitment (measured in time period 2 which was three months later). The authors concluded that the CSE is predictive of key career-related outcomes in Turkey’s collectivist culture.


Core self-evaluations Job satisfaction Life satisfaction Affective commitment 



This work was supported by Scientific Project Commission of Social Sciences University of Ankara, grant number 179.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


  1. Allen, N. J., & Meyer, J. P. (1990). The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organization. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 1–18. Scholar
  2. Aycan, Z. (2001). Human resource management in Turkey - current issues and future challenges. International Journal of Manpower, 22, 252–260. Scholar
  3. Aycan, Z., & Fikret-Pasa, S. (2003). Career choices, job selection criteria, and leadership preferences in a transitional nation: The case of Turkey. Journal of Career Development, 30, 129–144. Scholar
  4. Benet-Martinez, V., & John, O. P. (1998). Los Cinco Grandes across cultures and ethnic groups: Multitraitmultimethod analyses of the big five in Spanish and English. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 729–750. Scholar
  5. Benson, J., & Brown, M. (2011). Generations at work: Are there differences and do they matter. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22, 1843–1865. Scholar
  6. Bentler, P. M. (1995). Program manual. Encino: Multivariate Software.Google Scholar
  7. Bollen, K. A. (1989). Structural equations with latent variables. New York: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bono, J. E., & Judge, T. A. (2003). Core self-evaluations: A review of the trait and its role in job satisfaction and job performance. European Journal of Personality, 17, 5–18. Scholar
  9. Brayfield, A. H., & Rothe, H. F. (1951). An index of job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 3, 307–311. Scholar
  10. Campbell, J. D., Trapnell, P. D., Heine, S. J., Katz, I. M., Lavallee, L. F., & Lehman, D. R. (1996). Self-concept clarity: Measurement, personality correlates, and cultural boundaries. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 141–156. Scholar
  11. Çetin, Ş., Gürbüz, S., & Sert, M. (2015). A meta-analysis of the relationship between organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior: Test of potential moderator variables. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 27, 281–303. Scholar
  12. Chang, C. H., Ferris, D. L., Johnson, R. E., Rosen, C. C., & Tan, J. A. (2012). Core self-evaluations: A review and evaluation of the literature. Journal of Management, 38, 81–128. Scholar
  13. Chen, G. (2012). Evaluating the core: Critical assessment of core self-evaluations theory. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 33, 153–160. Scholar
  14. Chen, C., Lee, S., & Stevenson, H. W. (1995). Response style and cross-cultural comparisons of rating scales among east Asian and north American students. Psychological Science, 6, 170–175. Scholar
  15. Chinese Culture Connection. (1987). Chinese values and the search for culture-free dimensions of culture. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 18, 143–164. Scholar
  16. Costigan, R., Gurbuz, S., & Sigri, Ü. (2018). Schein’s career anchors: Testing factorial validity, invariance across countries, and relationship with core self-evaluations. Journal of Career Development, 45, 199–214. Scholar
  17. Daboval, J. (1998). A comparison between baby boomers and generation X employees’ bases and foci of commitment, doctoral dissertation. Fort Lauderdale: Nova South Eastern University.Google Scholar
  18. Diener, E., & Diener, M. (1995). Cross-cultural correlates of life satisfaction and self-esteem. Personality Processes and Individual Differences, 68, 653–663. Scholar
  19. Diener, E., Emmons, R., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71–75. Scholar
  20. Durak, M., Senol-Durak, E., & Gencoz, T. (2010). Psychometric properties of the satisfaction with life scale among Turkish university students, correctional officers, and elderly adults. Social Indicators Research, 99, 413–429. Scholar
  21. Erez, A., & Judge, T. A. (2001). Relationship of core self-evaluations to goal setting, motivation, and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 1270–1279. Scholar
  22. Erol, H. T., & Sumer, H. C. (2009). The power of pleasant affective state at work. New Orleans: Paper presented at the 24th Annual Meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology.Google Scholar
  23. Gardner, D. G., & Pierce, J. L. (2009). The core self-evaluation scale: Further construct validation evidence. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 70, 291–304. Scholar
  24. Gençöz, T. (2000). Pozitif ve Negatif Duygu Ölçeği: Geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması. Türk Psikoloji Dergisi, 15, 19–26.Google Scholar
  25. Goldberg, L. R. (1990). An alternative ‘description of personality’: The big-five factor structure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 1216–1229. Scholar
  26. Goregenli, M. (1997). Individualist-collectivist tendencies in a Turkish sample. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 28, 787–794. Scholar
  27. Gürbüz, S. (2015). Kuşak farklılıkları: Mit mi, gerçek mi? (Generational differences: A myth or reality?). İş ve İnsan Dergisi, 2, 39–57. Scholar
  28. Gurbuz, S., & Bingol, D. (2007). Çeşitli örgüt yöneticilerinin güç mesafesi, belirsizlikten kaçınma, eril-dişil ve bireyci toplulukçu kültür boyutlarına yönelik eğilimleri üzerine görgül bir araştırma. KHO Savunma Bilimleri Dergisi, 62, 68–87.Google Scholar
  29. Gurbuz, S., & Bayramlik, H. (2015). The relationship between core self-evaluations and life satisfaction. In S. Doğan (Ed.), Yaşam Doyumu (pp. 117–130). Ankara: Nobel.Google Scholar
  30. Gurbuz, S., Erkus, A., & Sigri, U. (2010). New predictors of job satisfaction and job performance. Sosyal ve Beşeri Bilimler Dergisi, 2, 69–76.Google Scholar
  31. Gurbuz, S., & Sahin, F. (2017). Sosyal bilimlerde araştırma yöntemleri -felsefe-yöntem-analiz (research methods in social sciences– Philosophy, method, and analysis) (4th ed.). Ankara: Seckin.Google Scholar
  32. Heine, S. H., Lehman, D. R., Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1999). Is there a universal need for positive self regard? Psychological Review, 106, 766–794. Scholar
  33. Hofstede, G. (1980). Motivation, leadership and organizations: Do American theories apply abroad? Organizational Dynamics, 9, 42–63. Scholar
  34. Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G. J., & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. New York: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  35. Hu, L. & Bentler, P. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indices in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55.
  36. Jackson, D. L., Gillaspy Jr., J. A., & Purc-Stephenson, R. (2009). Reporting practices in confirmatory factor analysis: An overview and some recommendations. Psychological Methods, 14, 6–23. Scholar
  37. Jöreskog, K. G., & Sörbom, D. (2006). LISREL 8.80 for Windows [Computer Software]. Lincolnwood: Scientific Software International, Inc..Google Scholar
  38. Judge, T. A., & Larsen, R. J. (2001). Dispositional affect and job satisfaction: A review and theoretical extension. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 86, 67–98. Scholar
  39. Judge, T. A., & Bono, J. E. (2001). Relationship of core self-evaluations traits—self-esteem, generalized self-efficacy, locus of control, and emotional stability—with job satisfaction and job performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 80–92. Scholar
  40. Judge, T. A., Erez, A., Bono, J. E., & Thoresen, C. J. (2003). The core self-evaluations scale: Development of a measure. Personnel Psychology, 56, 303–331. Scholar
  41. Judge, T. A., Van Vianen, A. E. M., & De Pater, I. E. (2004). Emotional stability, core self-evaluations, and job outcomes: A review of the evidence and an agenda for future research. Human Performance, 17, 325–346. Scholar
  42. Judge, T. A., Erez, A., & Bono, J. E. (1998a). The power of being positive: The relation between positive self concept and job performance. Human Performance, 11, 167–187. Scholar
  43. Judge, T. A., Locke, E. A., & Durham, C. C. (1997). The dispositional causes of job satisfaction: A core evaluation approach. Research in Organizational Behavior, 19, 151–188. Scholar
  44. Judge, T. A., Locke, E. A., Durham, C. C., & Kluger, A. N. (1998b). Dispositional effects on job and life satisfaction: The role of core evaluations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 17–34. Scholar
  45. Kagitcibasi, C. (1997). Individualism and collectivism. In J. W. Berry, M. H. Segall, & C. Kagitcibasi (Eds.), Handbook of cross-cultural psychology: Vol. 3. Social behavior and applications (pp. 1–49). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  46. Koch, S., & Bertan, E. (2012). Offshoring to and from Turkey as an emerging economy: IT and other sectors. CONF-IRM 2012 Proceedings, 44.Google Scholar
  47. Lee, I.A., & Preacher, K.J. (2013).Calculation for the test of the difference between two dependent correlations with one variable in common [Computer software]. Retrieved January 5, 2015, from
  48. Leong, F. T. L. (2008). Encyclopedia of counseling. Los Angeles: SAGE Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lub, X., Bijvank, M. N., Bal, P. M., Blomme, R., & Schalk, R. (2012). Different or alike? Exploring the psychological contract and commitment of different generations of hospitality workers. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 24, 553–573. Scholar
  50. Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 98, 224–253. Scholar
  51. Morgeson, C., Campion, M. A., Dipboye, R. L., Hollenbeck, J. R., Murphy, K., & Schmitt, N. (2007). Are we getting fooled again? Coming to terms with limitations in the use of personality tests for personnel selection. Personnel Psychology, 60, 1029–1049. Scholar
  52. Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory (2 nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  53. Oishi, S., Diener, E. F., Lucas, R. E., & Suh, E. M. (1999). Cross-cultural variations in predictors of life satisfaction: Perspectives from needs and values. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, 980–990. Scholar
  54. Oyserman, D., Coon, H. M., & Kemmelmeier, M. (2002). Rethinking individualism and collectivism: Evaluation of theoretical assumptions and meta-analyses. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 3–72. Scholar
  55. Piccolo, R. F., Judge, T. A., Takahashi, K., Watanabe, N., & Locke, E. A. (2005). Core self-evaluations in Japan: Relative effects on job satisfaction, life satisfaction, and happiness. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26, 965–984. Scholar
  56. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2012). Sources of method bias in social science research and recommendations on how to control it. Annual Review of Psychology, 65, 539–569. Scholar
  57. Rode, J. C., Judge, T. A., & Sun, J. J. (2012). Incremental validity of core self -evaluations in the presence of other self-concept traits: An investigation of applied psychology criteria in the U.S. and China. The Journal of Organizational and Leadership Studies, 19, 324–338. Scholar
  58. Rothstein, M. G., & Goffin, R. D. (2006). The use of personality measures in personnel selection: What does current research support? Human Resource Management Review, 16, 155–180. Scholar
  59. Schmitt, N. (2004). Beyond the big five: Increases in understanding and practical utility. Human Performance, 17, 347–357. Scholar
  60. Schwarzer, R., & Jerusalem, M. (1995). Generalized self-efficacy scale. In J. Weinman, S. Wright, & M. Johnston (Eds.), Measures in health psychology: A user’s portfolio. Causal and control beliefs (pp. 35–37). Windsor: NFER-NELSON.Google Scholar
  61. SIPRI (2015). The SIPRI-Top 100 and recent trends in the arms industry. Retrieved January 9, 2015, from
  62. Smola, K. W., & Sutton, C. D. (2002). Generational differences: Revisiting generational work values for the new millennium. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23, 363–382. Scholar
  63. Steiger, J. H. (1980). Tests for comparing elements of a correlation matrix. Psychological Bulletin, 87, 245–251. Scholar
  64. Stumpp, T., Muck, P. M., Hülsheger, U. R., Judge, T. A., & Maier, G. W. (2010). Core self-evaluations in Germany: Validation of a German measure and its relationships with career success. Applied Psychology. An International Review, 59, 674–700. Scholar
  65. Suh, E. M. (2002). Culture, identity consistency, and subjective well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 1378–1391. Scholar
  66. Suh, E., Diener, E., Oishi, S., & Triandis, H. C. (1998). The shifting basis of life satisfaction judgments across cultures: Emotions versus norms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 482–493. Scholar
  67. Sumer, N., Lajunen, T., & Ozkan, T. (2005). Big five personality traits as the distal predictors of road accident involvement. In G. Underwood (Ed.), Traffic and transport psychology (pp. 215–227). Oxford: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  68. Taras, V., Steel, P. & Kirkman, B. (2012). Improving national cultural indices using a longitudinal meta-analysis of Hofstede’s dimensions. Journal of World Business, 47, 329–341.
  69. Taras, V., Steel, P. & Kirkman, B. (2016). Does country equate with culture? Beyond geography in the search for cultural boundaries. Management International Review, 56, 455–487,
  70. Triandis, H. C. (1994). Culture and social behavior. NY: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  71. Triandis, H. (1995). Individualism and collectivism. Boulder: Westview.Google Scholar
  72. TUIK. (2016). Turkish statistical institute: Workforce statistics database. Retrieved December 9, 2017, from
  73. Uskul, A. K., Oyserman, D., & Schwarz, N. (2010). Cultural emphasis on honor, modesty, or selfenhancement: Implications for the survey-response process. In J. A. Harkness, M. Braun, B. Edwards, T. P.Johnson, L. Lyberg, P. P. Mohler, B.E. Pennell, & T. W. Smith (Eds.), Wiley series in survey methodology.Survey methods in multinational, multiregional, and multicultural contexts (pp. 191–201). Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
  74. Wallace, J. (2006). Work commitment in the legal profession: A study of baby boomers and generation Xers. International Journal of the Legal Profession, 13, 137–151. Scholar
  75. Wasti, S. A. (2003). Organizational commitment, turnover intentions and the influence of cultural values. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 76, 303–321. Scholar
  76. Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063–1070. Scholar
  77. Weiss, H. M. (2002). Deconstructing job satisfaction: Separating evaluations, beliefs, and affective experiences. Human Resource Management Review, 12, 173–194. Scholar
  78. Weitz, J. (1952). A neglected concept in the study of job satisfaction. Personnel Psychology, 5, 201–205. Scholar
  79. Yesilay, A., Schwarzer, R. & Jerusalem, M. (1996). Turkish adaptation of the general perceived self-efficacy scale. Retrieved December 9, 2017, from

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BusinessSocial Sciences University of AnkaraAnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.Department of ManagementSt. John Fisher CollegeRochesterUSA
  3. 3.Independent ResearcherBoluTurkey

Personalised recommendations