Psychometric Properties of the European Portuguese Version of the Distance Education Learning Environments Survey (DELES)

  • Anabela Sousa Pereira
  • Rosa Maria GomesEmail author
  • Daniel Ruivo Marques
  • Scott L. Walker


Over the last few decades, distance education and distance learning have assumed a relevant role in education paradigms. To evaluate the perception and preferences of the psychosocial online learning environment by Portuguese post-secondary higher education, the Distance Education Learning Environments Survey (DELES) was applied in a Portuguese context. This article describes the adaptation and validation of DELES to be used in distance and hybrid education psychosocial learning environments in Portugal. The results suggested five scales rather than the six of the original DELES. The Internal consistency values were all good or excellent. However, a second-order principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that the scales might also be scored and used as a unidimensional measure. Beyond investigating the DELES-Pt “actual” form concerning students’ perceptions of the learning environment, we also studied psychometric features of the DELES-Pt “preferred” form regarding students’ preferred learning environment. The results were like those achieved with the actual form in other investigations. When both forms were compared, a significant discrepancy was observed between students’ perceptions and preferences. The implications of these findings for applied settings are discussed. DELES-Pt forms demonstrated adequate reliability and validity; however, further studies with the DELES-Pt are needed to compare with our data.


DELES-Pt Psychometrics Distance education Distance learning Psychosocial learning environment 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Education and Psychology, Campus Universitário de SantiagoUniversity of AveiroAveiroPortugal
  2. 2.Research Centre Didactics and Technology in the Education of Trainers (CIDTFF)University of AveiroAveiroPortugal
  3. 3.Institute for Biomedical Imaging and Life Sciences, IBILI, Azinhaga de Santa CombaCoimbraPortugal
  4. 4.Social Sciences Department, Geography Program, Institute of Science and TechnologyNorthwest Vista CollegeSan AntonioUSA

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