An abbreviation of the scale of protective factors: Resilience in a medical trauma sample
- 13 Downloads
Medical trauma is related to traumatic stress and poor health recovery. Those who are able to overcome medical trauma are said to be resilient. However, research examining resilience in the context of adult health has been limited by reliance upon measures assessing cognitive, to the exclusion of social, protective factors. The Scale of Protective Factors (SPF-24) is a valid and reliable measure of adult resilience and it assesses both social and cognitive protective factors. Because time may be of short supply in a medical event and lengthy assessments may be overly burdensome, it is the purpose of the present study to abbreviate the SPF-24 for use in medical settings. The sample of 420 Southwestern university students were selected based on an experience of childhood poverty and/or growing up in a single parent/guardian household. The present study examined model fit and reliability of an abbreviated SPF consisting of 12 items (SPF-12). Results indicate that the SPF-12 achieved good model fit and adequate reliability. Additionally, we examined the construct validity of the SPF-12 on a sub-sample of those who reported medical trauma. The SPF-12 is significantly positively correlated with another measure of resilience (CD-RISC-10) and with psychosocial well-being. The SPF-12 was significantly negatively correlated with depression (BDI-II). A discussion of the usefulness of the SPF-12 in developing therapeutic plans is offered along with future directions for clinical and research settings.
KeywordsResilience Protective factors Health, psychosocial well-being Scale development Medical trauma
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no known conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- Burns, R. A., & Anstey, K. J. (2010). The Connor–Davidson resilience scale (CD-RISC): Testing the invariance of a uni-dimensional resilience measure that is independent of positive and negative affect. Personality and Individual Differences, 48(5), 527–531. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2009.11.026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Byrne, B. M. (2001). Structural equation modeling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.Google Scholar
- Friborg, O., Hjemdal, O., Martinussen, M., & Rosenvinge, J. (2009). Empirical support for resilience as more than the counterpart and absence of vulnerability and symptoms of mental disorder. Journal of Individual Differences, 30(3), 138–151. https://doi.org/10.1027/1614-0001.30.3.138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gorsuch, R. L. (1983). Factor analysis (2nd ed.). Hillsdale: L. Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
- Gucciardi, D. R., Jackson, B., Coulter, T. J., & Mallett, C. J. (2011). The Connor-Davidson resilience scale (CD-RISC): Dimensionality and age-related measurement invariance with Australian cricketers. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 12(4), 423–433. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2011.02.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1995). Evaluating model fit. In R. Hoyle (Ed.), Structural equation modeling: Concepts, issues, and applications (pp. 76–99). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc..Google Scholar
- Kincaid, J. P., Fishburne, R. P., Rogers, R. L., & Chissom, B. S. (1975). Derivation of new readability formulas (automated readability index, fog count and Flesch reading ease formula) for navy enlisted personnel. Performer: Naval Technical Training Command Millington Tennessee Research Branch. Sponsor: Georgia Southern College, Statesboro. Report: RBR-8–75.Google Scholar
- Madewell, A. N., & Ponce-Garcia, E. (2016). Assessing resilience in emerging adulthood: The resilience scale (RS), Connor Davidson resilience scale (CD-RISC), and scale of protective factors (SPF). Personality and Individual Differences, 97, 249–255. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.03.036.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Marsac, M. L., Kassam-Adams, N., Delahanty, D. L., Widaman, K. F., & Barakat, L. P. (2014). Posttraumatic stress following acute medical trauma in children: A proposed model of bio-psycho-social processes during the peri-trauma period. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 17(4), 399–411. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10567-014-0174-2.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Masten, A., Obradović, J., & Burt, K. B. (2006). Resilience in emerging adulthood: Developmental perspectives on continuity and transformation. Emerging adults in America Coming of age in the 21 st century (pp. 173–190). Washington. DC: American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/11381-007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Melchior, M., Moffitt, T. E., Miline, B. J., Poulton, R. P., & Caspi, A. (2007). Why do children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families suffer from poor health when they reach adulthood? A life-course study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 166(8), 966–974. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje-kwm155.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Nctsnet.org (2010). Medical Trauma sub link from Trauma Types. The National Child Trauma Stress Network website. Retrieved from nctsnet.org/trauma-types/medical-trauma.
- Poulton, R., Caspi, A., Milne, B. J., Thomson, W. M., Taylor, A., Sears, M. R., & Moffitt, T. E. (2002). Association between children's experience of socioeconomic disadvantage and adult health: A life-course study. The Lancet, 360(9346), 1640–1645. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(02)11602-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Reich, J. W., Zautra, A. J., & Hall, J. (2010). Handbook of adult resilience. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Tyre, Y., Griffin, M., & Simmons, R. T. (2016). Building resiliency in counselors in training for counselors educators. Alabama Counseling Journal, 41(1), 23–44 http://www.alabamacounseling.org/pdf/journal/JournalFall2016.pdf.Google Scholar
- Vaishnavi, S., Connor, K., & Davidson, J. R. (2007). An abbreviated version of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), the CD-RISC2: psychometric properties and applications in psychopharmacological trials. Psychiatric Resilience, 152, 293–297. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2007.01.006
- Wagnild, G. M., & Quinn, P. (2011). The Resilience Scale user’s guide for the U.S. English version of the Resilience Scale and the 14-item Resilience Scale, 128.Google Scholar
- Wright, L. J., Zautra, A. J., & Going, S. (2008). Adaptation to early knee osteoarthritis: The role of risk, resilience, and disease severity on pain and physical functioning. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 36(1), 70–80. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12160-008-9048-5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar