An abbreviation of the scale of protective factors: Resilience in a medical trauma sample

  • Amy N. MadewellEmail author
  • Elisabeth Ponce-Garcia
  • Bethany Bruno-Casteñeda
  • Sarah Struck-Downen
  • Heavin D. Taylor


Medical trauma is related to traumatic stress and poor health recovery. Those who are able to overcome medical trauma are said to be resilient. However, research examining resilience in the context of adult health has been limited by reliance upon measures assessing cognitive, to the exclusion of social, protective factors. The Scale of Protective Factors (SPF-24) is a valid and reliable measure of adult resilience and it assesses both social and cognitive protective factors. Because time may be of short supply in a medical event and lengthy assessments may be overly burdensome, it is the purpose of the present study to abbreviate the SPF-24 for use in medical settings. The sample of 420 Southwestern university students were selected based on an experience of childhood poverty and/or growing up in a single parent/guardian household. The present study examined model fit and reliability of an abbreviated SPF consisting of 12 items (SPF-12). Results indicate that the SPF-12 achieved good model fit and adequate reliability. Additionally, we examined the construct validity of the SPF-12 on a sub-sample of those who reported medical trauma. The SPF-12 is significantly positively correlated with another measure of resilience (CD-RISC-10) and with psychosocial well-being. The SPF-12 was significantly negatively correlated with depression (BDI-II). A discussion of the usefulness of the SPF-12 in developing therapeutic plans is offered along with future directions for clinical and research settings.


Resilience Protective factors Health, psychosocial well-being Scale development Medical trauma 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no known conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologySoutheastern Oklahoma State UniversityDurantUSA
  2. 2.Uniformed Services University of the Health SciencesBethesdaUSA
  3. 3.Oklahoma State UniversityStillwaterUSA

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