Bad Behaviors at Work: Spanish Adaptation of the Workplace Deviance Scale

  • Elena Fernández del RíoEmail author
  • Juan Ramón Barrada
  • Pedro J. Ramos-Villagrasa


Counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs) refers to a set of negative intentional behaviors that harm organizational outcomes. Despite their consequences, their measurement is a debatable issue. The present study is aimed to validate the Spanish version of one of the most commonly used scales of CWBs, the Workplace Deviance Scale, and to provide further evidence about the reliability and validity of the test scores. Four hundred and thirty-two employees from different organizations participated in the study. They completed a self-report questionnaire with the measures of interest (sociodemographic data, the Workplace Deviance Scale, and scales of organizational citizenship behavior, organizational justice, integrity, and conscientiousness). Descriptive, exploratory structural equation modeling and correlational analyses were performed. Results have shown that the internal structure does not fully reproduce the original one, but the two theoretically expected factors remain. Furthermore, the pattern of associations is barely influenced by the scoring scheme used (factor vs. observed scores), and the associations with other constructs are in line with previous research. On the whole, this study contributes to the analysis of the dimensionality of CWBs, at least in Western countries.


Counterproductive work behaviors Organizational deviance Interpersonal deviance Job performance 



The authors would like to acknowledge the Spanish National Plan for R&D, Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (PSI2013-44854-R project) for support that, in part, assisted the composition of this article.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychology and SociologyUniversidad de ZaragozaZaragozaSpain

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