Theoretical Foundations to Guide Mindfulness Meditation: A Path to Wisdom

  • Nandini Karunamuni
  • Rasanjala Weerasekera


Mindfulness interventions are becoming increasingly popular across a wide variety of clinical and non-clinical settings where they are often employed to promote psychological well-being. Mindfulness in its original context presented in Buddhist practice is used to systematically understand one’s moment-to-moment experience, and to gradually develop self-knowledge and wisdom. Buddhist teachings describe wisdom as seeing things just as they are - a requisite for the complete freedom from suffering. In psychological writings, although the construct of wisdom lacks a commonly accepted definition, direct experiential self-knowledge is considered to be an essential element of wisdom. The purpose of this article is to examine the three major trainings of the Buddhist path, as well as some of the key Buddhist theoretical constructs, in order to explore their contribution to the gradual development of experiential self-knowledge and wisdom. In Buddhist traditions, mindfulness is practised in the context of a moral and philosophical system, and the mind is described as a sequence of momentary mental states, each distinct and discrete, their connections with one another being causal. We explain how a clear understanding of mindfulness within the context of this broader theoretical framework can be helpful to individuals engaging in different levels of the mindfulness meditation practice, and how this understanding can result in more sustained outcomes for mindfulness interventions. Further explorations are made into how various barriers and motivators to mindfulness meditation can be better understood by linking the theoretical aspects with current research literature on mindfulness.


Mindfulness Meditation Self-knowledge Wisdom Attachment Subjective experience Buddhist psychology 



The authors would like to thank Venerable S. Dhammika, Dr. Anjani Karunaratne and Dr. Paul Ritvo for reviewing an earlier version of this manuscript and providing helpful feedback. We also express our gratitude to a Buddhist meditation teacher in Sri Lanka who prefers not to be named, for providing guidance on theoretical aspects of Buddhist teachings.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Author Nandini Karunamuni declares that she has no conflict of interest. Author Rasanjala Weerasekera declares that she has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


The authors received no financial support for the research and/or authorship of this article.


  1. Abhidhamma Pitaka. (2005). The Basket of Abhidhamma. Access to insight. Retrieved from
  2. Amaro, A. (2003). Small boat, great mountain: Theravadan reflections on the natural great perfection. Redwood Valley, CA: Abhayagiri Monastic Foundation.Google Scholar
  3. Amaro, A. (2015). A holistic mindfulness. Mindfulness, 6(1), 63–73. doi: 10.1007/s12671-014-0382-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. American Mindfulness Research Association. (2015). Publications. Retrieved from
  5. Anālayo, B. (2006). Satipatthana: The direct path to realization. Cambridge, UK: Windhorse.Google Scholar
  6. Anestis, M., Anestis, J., Selby, E., & Joiner, T. (2009). Anger rumination across forms of aggression. Personality and Individual Differences, 46, 192–196. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2008.09.026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Atchley, R., Klee, D., Memmott, T., Goodrich, E., Wahbeh, H., & Oken, B. (2016). Event-related potential correlates of mindfulness meditation competence. Neuroscience, 320, 83–92. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2016.01.051.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Avants, S. K., & Margolin, A. (2004). Development of spiritual selfschema (3-S) therapy for the treatment of addictive and HIV risk behavior: A convergence of cognitive and Buddhist psychology. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 14, 253–289. doi: 10.1037/1053-0479.14.3.253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ayduk, Ö., & Kross, E. (2008). Enhancing the pace of recovery: Self distanced analysis of negative experiences reduces blood pressure reactivity. Psychological Science, 19(3), 2292–2231. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02073.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baer, R. (2015). Ethics, values, virtues, and character strengths in mindfulness-based interventions: A psychological science perspective. Mindfulness, 6(4), 956–969. doi: 10.1007/s12671-015-0419-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Lykins, E., Button, D., Krietemeyer, J., Sauer, S., et al. (2008). Construct validity of the five facet mindfulness questionnaire in meditating and non meditating samples. Assessment, 15(3), 329–342. doi: 10.1177/1073191107313003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bāhiya Sutta Ud1.10. (1994). Bāhiya. Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu. Access to insight. Retrieved from
  13. Baltes, P. B., & Staudinger, U. M. (2000). Wisdom. A metaheuristic (pragmatic) to orchestrate mind and virtue toward excellence. American Psychologist, 55, 122–136. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bargh, J. H. (2014). Our unconscious mind. Scientific American, 310(1), 30–37. doi: 10.1038/scientificamerican0114-30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Barker, D. R., & Pasricha, S. K. (1979). Reincarnation cases in Fatehabad: A systematic survey in North India. Journal of Asian and African Studies, 14, 231–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Benson, H. (1976). The relaxation response. New York: Avon Books.Google Scholar
  17. Bernstein, A., Hadash, Y., Lichtash, Y., Tanay, G., Shepherd, K., & Fresco, D. M. (2015). Decentering and related constructs: A critical review and metacognitive processes model. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 10(5), 599–617.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Biegler, P., & Vargas, P. (2016). Feeling is believing: Evaluative conditioning and the ethics of pharmaceutical advertising. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry, 13(2), 271–279. doi: 10.1007/s11673-016-9702-8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Birnie, K., Speca, M., & Carlson, L. D. (2010). Exploring selfcompassion and empathy in the context of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR). Stress and Health, 26, 359–371. doi: 10.1002/smi.1305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bisson, J. I. (2007). Post-traumatic stress disorder. Occupational Medicine, 57(6), 399–403. doi: 10.1136/bmj.39162.538553.80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Blair, M. E., & Shimp, T. A. (1992). Consequences of an unpleasant experience with music: A second-order negative conditioning perspective. Journal of Advertising, 21, 35–43. doi: 10.1080/00913367.1992.10673358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bodhi, B. (2006). The Noble Eightfold path: The way to the end of suffering. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society. Retrieved from
  23. Bodhi, B. (2012). The numerical discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the Anguttara Nikaya. Boston: Wisdom Publications.Google Scholar
  24. Bodhi, B., & Nārada, M. (2012). A comprehensive manual of Abhidhamma. Onalaska, WA. Pariyatti Publishing.Google Scholar
  25. Borders, A., Earleywine, M., & Jajodia, A. (2010). Could mindfulness decrease anger, hostility, and aggression by decreasing rumination? Aggressive Behavior, 36(1), 28–44. doi: 10.1002/ab.20327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bowen, S., Bergman, A. L., & Witkiewitz, K. (2015). Engagement in Buddhist meditation practices among non-Buddhists: Associations with religious identity and practice. Mindfulness, 6(6), 1456–1461. doi: 10.1007/s12671-015-0420-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Brahm, A. (2006). Mindfulness, bliss, and beyond: A meditator's handbook. Boston: Wisdom Publications.Google Scholar
  28. Bremner, J. D., Elzinga, B., Schmahl, C., & Vermetten, E. (2008). Structural and functional plasticity of the human brain in posttraumatic stress disorder. Progress in Brain Research, 167, 171–186. doi: 10.1016/S0079-6123(07)67012-5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Brenner, M. J. (2009). Zen practice: A training method to enhance the skills of clinical social workers. Social Work in Health Care, 48(4), 462–470. doi: 10.1080/00981380802589860.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Brickman, P., Coates, D., & Janoff-Bulman, R. (1978). Lottery winners and accident victims: Is happiness relative? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36(8), 917. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.36.8.917.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Brosschot, J. F., Gerin, W., & Thayer, J. F. (2006). The perseverative cognition hypothesis: A review of worry, prolonged stress-related physiological activation, and health. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 60, 113–124. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2005.06.074.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Brown, K., & Ryan, R. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 822–848. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.84.4.822.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Bushman, B. J., Bonacci, A. M., Pedersen, W. C., Vasquez, E. A., & Miller, N. (2005). Chewing on it can chew you up: Effects of rumination on triggered displaced aggression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88(6), 969–983. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.88.6.969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Buttle, H. (2015). Measuring a journey without goal: Meditation, Spirituality, and physiology. BioMed Research International. ID 891671. doi: 10.1155/2015/891671.
  35. Campbell, R., Dworkin, E., & Cabral, G. (2009). An ecological model of the impact of sexual assault on women's mental health. Trauma, Violence & Abuse, 10(3), 225–246. doi: 10.1177/1524838009334456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cayoun, B. A. (2011). Mindfulness-integrated CBT: Principles and practice. Chichester, UK: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Chah, A. (2007). Meditation: A collection of talks on cultivating the mind. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society.Google Scholar
  38. Condon, P., Desbordes, G., Miller, W. B., & DeSteno, D. (2013). Meditation increases compassionate responses to suffering. Psychological Science, 24, 2125–2127. doi: 10.1177/0956797613485603.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Cook, E. W., Pasricha, S., Samararatne, G., Maung, U., & Stevenson, I. (1983). Review and analysis of "unsolved" cases of the reincarnation type: II. Comparison of features of solved and unsolved cases. The Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 77(1), 45–62.Google Scholar
  40. Creswell, J. D. (2017). Mindfulness interventions. Annual Review of Psychology, 68, 491–516. doi: 10.1037/1053-0479.14.3.25310.1146/annurev-psych-042716-051139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dahlsgaard, K., Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2005). Shared virtue: The convergence of valued human strengths across culture and history. Review of General Psychology, 9, 203–213. doi: 10.1037/1089-2680.9.3.203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Dambrun, M., & Ricard, M. (2011). Self-centeredness and selflessness: A theory of self-based psychological functioning and its consequences for happiness. Review of General Psychology, 15(2), 138. doi: 10.1037/a0023059.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Dambrun, M., Ricard, M., Després, G., Drelon, E., Gibelin, E., Gibelin, M., et al. (2012). Measuring happiness: From fluctuating happiness to authentic–durable happiness. Frontiers in Psychology, 3, 16. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00016.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. de Zoysa, P. (2016). When east meets west: Reflections on the use of Buddhist mindfulness practice in mindfulness-based interventions. Mental Health, Religion and Culture, 19(4), 362–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Deikman, A. (2000). A functional approach to mysticism. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 7(11–12), 75–92.Google Scholar
  46. Desbordes, G., Gard, T., Hoge, E. A., Hölzel, B. K., Kerr, C., Lazar, S. W., et al. (2015). Moving beyond mindfulness: Defining equanimity as an outcome measure in meditation and contemplative research. Mindfulness, 6(2), 356–372. doi: 10.1007/s12671-013-0269-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Dhamma. (2005). Access to Insight. Retrieved from
  48. Dhammika, S. (1991). Good question, good answer. Singapore: Buddha Dhamma Mandala Society. Retrieved from
  49. Dishman, R. K., & Buckworth, J. (1996). Increasing physical activity: A quantitative synthesis. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 28, 706–719.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Eisenlohr-Moul, T. A., Peters, J. R., Pond Jr., R. S., & DeWall, C. N. (2016). Both trait and state mindfulness predict lower aggressiveness via anger rumination: A multilevel mediation analysis. Mindfulness, 7(3), 713–726. doi: 10.1007/s12671-016-0508-x.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ekman, P., Davidson, R. J., Ricard, M., & Wallace, B. A. (2005). Buddhist and psychological perspectives on emotions and well-being. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14, 59–63. doi: 10.1111/j.0963-7214.2005.00335.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ellamil, M., Fox, K. C., Dixon, M. L., Pritchard, S., Todd, R. M., Thompson, E., & Christoff, K. (2016). Dynamics of neural recruitment surrounding the spontaneous arising of thoughts in experienced mindfulness practitioners. NeuroImage, 136, 186–196. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.04.034.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Festinger, L. (1962). Cognitive dissonance. Scientific American, 207(4), 93–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Fredrickson, B. L., Cohn, M. A., Coffey, K. A., Pek, J., & Finkel, S. M. (2008). Open hearts build lives: Positive emotions, induced through loving-kindness meditation, build consequential personal resources. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95(5), 1045.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Fredrickson, B. L., Grewen, K. M., Coffey, K. A., Algoe, S. B., Firestine, A. M., Arevalo, J. M., et al. (2013). A functional genomic perspective on human well-being. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(33), 13684–13689. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1305419110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Galdi, S., Arcuri, L., & Gawronski, B. (2008). Automatic mental associations predict future choices of undecided decision makers. Science, 321, 1100–1102. doi: 10.1126/science.1160769.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Garland, E. L., Farb, N. A., Goldin, R. P., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2015). Mindfulness broadens awareness and builds eudaimonic meaning: A process model of mindful positive emotion regulation. Psychological Inquiry, 26(4), 293–314. doi: 10.1080/1047840X.2015.1064294.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ghatak, A. K., & Lokanathan, S. (2004). Quantum mechanics: Theory and applications. The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Gilbert, P., Cheung, M., Irons, C., & McEwan, K. (2005). An exploration into depression-focused and anger-focused rumination in relation to depression in a student population. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 33, 273–283. doi: 10.1017/S1352465804002048.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Glanz, K., & Bishop, D. B. (2010). The role of behavioral science theory in development and implementation of public health interventions. Annual Review of Public Health, 31, 399–418.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Gleig, A. (2012). Wedding the personal and impersonal in west coast Vipassana: A dialogical encounter between Buddhism and psychotherapy. Journal of Global Buddhism, 13, 129–146.Google Scholar
  62. Gotink, R. A., Chu, P., Busschbach, J. J., Benson, H., Fricchione, G. L., & Hunink, M. M. (2015). Standardised mindfulness-based interventions in healthcare: An overview of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of RCTs. PloS One, 10(4), e0124344. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0124344.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Grossman, P. (2011). Defining mindfulness by how poorly I think I pay attention during everyday awareness and other intractable problems for psychology's (re)invention of mindfulness: Comment on Brown et al. (2011). Psychological Assessment, 23(4), 1034–1040.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Gu, J., Zhong, C. B., & Page-Gould, E. (2013). Listen to your heart: When false somatic feedback shapes moral behavior. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142(2), 307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Gu, J., Strauss, C., Bond, R., & Cavanagh, K. (2015). How do mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and mindfulness-based stress reduction improve mental health and wellbeing? A systematic review and meta-analysis of mediation studies. Clinical Psychology Review, 37, 1–12. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2015.01.006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Gunaratana, H. (2011). Mindfulness in plain English. Boston: Wisdom Publications.Google Scholar
  67. Hagen, S. (2013). Buddhism plain and simple: The practice of being aware, right now, every day. New York: Broadway Books.Google Scholar
  68. Haidt, J. (2007). The new synthesis in moral psychology. Science, 316(5827), 998–1002. doi: 10.1126/science.1137651.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hanley, A. W., Warner, A., & Garland, E. L. (2015). Associations between mindfulness, psychological well-being, and subjective well-being with respect to contemplative practice. Journal of Happiness Studies, 16(6), 1423–1436. doi: 10.1007/s10902-014-9569-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Haraldsson, E., & Samararatne, G. (1999). Children who speak of memories of a previous life as a Buddhist monk: Three new cases. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 63, 268–291.Google Scholar
  71. Harrington, A., & Dunne, J. D. (2015). When mindfulness is therapy: Ethical qualms, historical perspectives. American Psychologist, 70(7), 621. doi: 10.1037/a0039460.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Heeren, A., & Philippot, P. (2011). Changes in ruminative thinking mediate the clinical benefits of mindfulness: Preliminary findings. Mindfulness, 2(1), 8–13. doi: 10.1007/s12671-010-0037-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Heppner, W. L., Kernis, M. H., Lakey, C. E., Campbell, W. K., Goldman, B. M., Davis, P. J., & Cascio, E. V. (2008). Mindfulness as a means of reducing aggressive behavior: Dispositional and situational evidence. Aggressive Behavior, 34(5), 486–496. doi: 10.1002/ab.20258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Higgins, E. T. (1997). Beyond pleasure and pain. American Psychologist, 52, 1280–1300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Hochman, G., & Yechiam, E. (2011). Loss aversion in the eye and in the heart: The autonomic nervous system’s responses to losses. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 24, 140–156. doi: 10.1002/bdm.692.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Hofmann, W., De Houwer, J., Perugini, M., Baeyens, F., & Crombez, G. (2010). Evaluative conditioning in humans: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 136(3), 390. doi: 10.1037/a0018916.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Hölzel, B. K., Lazar, S. W., Gard, T., Schuman-Olivier, Z., Vago, D. R., & Ott, U. (2011). How does mindfulness meditation work? Proposing mechanisms of action from a conceptual and neural perspective. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6, 537–559. doi: 10.1177/1745691611419671.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Hwang, Y. S., & Kearney, P. (2013). A systematic review of mindfulness intervention for individuals with developmental disabilities: Long-term practice and long lasting effects. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34(1), 314–326. doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2012.08.008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Hyland, T. (2017). McDonaldizing Spirituality: Mindfulness, Education, and Consumerism. Journal of Transformative Education. doi: 10.1177/1541344617696972.
  80. Index of Similes. (2013). Access to Insight. Retrieved from
  81. Insel, P., Ross, D., & McMahon, K. (2013). Nutrition. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.Google Scholar
  82. Jayatilleke, K. N. (1968). Survival and Karma In Buddhist Perspective. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society. Retrieved from:
  83. Jayatunga, R. (2014). Let’s be Mindful. Ganemulla, Sri Lanka: Printwell Printers.Google Scholar
  84. Jazaieri, H., Lee, I. A., McGonigal, K., Jinpa, T., Doty, J. R., Gross, J. J., & Goldin, P. (2016). A wandering mind is a less caring mind: daily experience sampling during compassion meditation training. Journal of Positive Psychology, 11(1). doi: 10.1080/17439760.2015.1025418.
  85. Ju, S. J., & Lee, W. K. (2015). Mindfulness, non-attachment, and emotional well-being in Korean adults. Advanced Science and Technology Letters, 87, 68–72. doi: 10.14257/astl.2015.87.15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Kabat-Zinn, J. (2013). Full catastrophe living: Using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain, and illness. New York: Bantam Dell.Google Scholar
  87. Kang, C., & Whittingham, K. (2010). Mindfulness: A dialogue between Buddhism and clinical psychology. Mindfulness, 1(3), 161–173. doi: 10.1007/s12671-010-0018-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Karunamuni, N.D. (2015). The Five-Aggregate Model of the Mind. SAGE Open, 5 (2). doi: 10.1177/2158244015583860.
  89. Keng, S., Smoski, M. J., Robins, C. J., Ekblad, A. G., & Brantley, J. G. (2012). Mechanisms of change in mindfulness-based stress reduction: self-compassion and mindfulness as mediators of intervention outcomes. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 26, 270–280. doi: 10.1891/0889-8391.26.3.270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Kessler, R. C., McLaughlin, K. A., Green, J. G., Gruber, M. J., Sampson, N. A., Zaslavsky, A. M., et al. (2010). Childhood adversities and adult psychopathology in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 197(5), 378–385. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.110.080499.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Kok, B. E., Coffey, K. A., Cohn, M. A., Catalino, L. I., Vacharkulksemsuk, T., Algoe, S. B., et al. (2013). How positive emotions build physical health perceived positive social connections account for the upward spiral between positive emotions and vagal tone. Psychological Science, 24(7), 1123–1132. doi: 10.1177/0956797612470827.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Kudesia, R. S., & Nyima, V. T. (2015). Mindfulness contextualized: An integration of Buddhist and neuropsychological approaches to cognition. Mindfulness, 6(4), 910–925.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Kuyken, W., Watkins, E., Holden, E., White, K., Taylor, R., Byford, S., et al. (2010). How does mindfulness-based cognitive therapy work? Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48, 1105–1112. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2010.08.003.
  94. Labelle, L. E., Campbell, T. S., & Carlson, L. E. (2010). Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction in Oncology: Evaluating Mindfulness and Rumination as Mediators of Change in Depressive Symptoms. Mindfulness, 1(1), 28–40. doi: 10.1007/s12671-010-0005-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Lamis, D. A., & Dvorak, R. D. (2014). Mindfulness, nonattachment, and suicide rumination in college students: The mediating role of depressive symptoms. Mindfulness, 5(5), 487–496. doi: 10.1007/s12671-013-0203-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Lanza, R. (2009). Biocentrism: How life and consciousness are the keys to understanding the true nature of the universe. Dallas, TX: BenBella Books.Google Scholar
  97. MacLean, K. A., Ferrer, E., Aichele, S. R., Bridwell, D. A., Zanesco, A. P., Jacobs, T. L., et al. (2010). Intensive meditation training improves perceptual discrimination and sustained attention. Psychological science, 21(6), 829–839. doi: 10.1177/0956797610371339.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Mahathera, N. (1933). Buddhism in a nutshell. Access to Insight. Retrieved from
  99. Markus, H. (1983). Self-knowledge: An expanded view. Journal of Personality, 51, 543–565. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.1983.tb00344.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. McLaughlin, K. A., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2011). Rumination as a transdiagnostic factor in depression and anxiety. Behavior Research and Therapy, 49, 186–193. doi: 10.1037/a0035358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Mendis, N.K.G. (1985). The Abhidhamma in Practice. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society. Retrieved from
  102. Mensah, S. B., & Anderson, J. G. (2015). Barriers and facilitators of the use of mind-body therapies by healthcare providers and clinicians to care for themselves. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 21(2), 124–130. doi: 10.1016/j.ctcp.2015.01.004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Mills, A., Haraldsson, E., & Keil, H. H. J. (1994). Replication studies of cases suggestive of reincarnation by three independent investigators. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 88, 207–219.Google Scholar
  104. Moore, A., & Malinowski, P. (2009). Meditation, mindfulness and cognitive flexibility. Consciousness and Cognition, 18, 176–186. doi: 10.1016/j.concog.2008.12.008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Morgan, J. (2015). Emptiness and the Education of the Emotions. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 47(3), 291–304. doi: 10.1080/00131857.2013.860873.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Ñanamoli, T. (2013). The Buddha’s Words on Kamma: Four Discourses of the Buddha from the Majjhima Nikaya. Access to Insight. Retrieved from
  107. Ñanamoli, B. & Bodhi, B. (1994). The Discourse on Right View: The Sammaditthi Sutta and its Commentary. Access to Insight. Retrieved from
  108. Ñanamoli, B., & Bodhi, B. (1995). The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the Majjhima Nikaya. Boston: Wisdom Publications.Google Scholar
  109. Ñanananda, B. (2007). The Magic of the Mind: An Exposition of the Kalakarama Sutta. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society.Google Scholar
  110. Nārada, T. (2006). Everyman’s Ethics: Four Discourses of the Buddha. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society. Retrieved from
  111. Nelson, S. K., Della Porta, M. D., Jacobs Bao, K., Lee, H. C., Choi, I., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2015). ‘It’s up to you’: Experimentally manipulated autonomy support for prosocial behavior improves well-being in two cultures over six weeks. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 10(5), 463–476. doi: 10.1080/17439760.2014.983959.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Nickerson, R. S. (1998). Confirmation bias: A ubiquitous phenomenon in many guises. Review of General Psychology, 2, 175–220. doi: 10.1037/1089-2680.2.2.175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Nilsson, H., & Kazemi, A. (2016). Reconciling and thematizing definitions of mindfulness: The big five of mindfulness. Review of General Psychology, 20(2), 183. doi: 10.1037/gpr0000074.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Nimitta Sutta AN3.100. (1998). Themes. Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu. Access to Insight. Retrieved from
  115. Nyanaponika, T. (2008). The three basic facts of existence. Collected essays: Parts I, II and II. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society. Retrieved from
  116. Nyanaponika, T. (2014). The heart of Buddhist meditation. San Francisco: Weiser books.Google Scholar
  117. Ouweneel, E., Le Blanc, P. M., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2014). On being grateful and kind: Results of two randomized controlled trials on study-related emotions and academic engagement. The Journal of Psychology, 148(1), 37–60. doi: 10.1080/00223980.2012.742854.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Pasanno, A. & Amaro, A. (2009). The Island: An anthology of the Buddha’s teaching on nibbāna. Redwood Valley, CA: Abhayagiri Monastic Foundation.Google Scholar
  119. Paulus, M. P. (2016). Neural Basis of Mindfulness Interventions that Moderate the Impact of Stress on the Brain. Neuropsychopharmacology, 41(1), 373–373. doi: 10.1038/npp.2015.239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Peled, M., & Moretti, M. M. (2007). Rumination on anger and sadness in adolescence: Fueling of fury and deepening of despair. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 36, 66–75. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp3601_7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Penrose, R., & Mermin, N. D. (1990). The emperor’s new mind: Concerning computers, minds, and the laws of physics. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  122. Peters, J. R., Smart, L. M., Eisenlohr-Moul, T. A., Geiger, P. J., Smith, G. T., & Baer, R. A. (2015). Anger rumination as a mediator of the relationship between mindfulness and aggression: The utility of a multidimensional mindfulness model. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 71(9), 871–884. doi: 10.1002/jclp.22189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Popoli, M., Yan, Z., McEwen, B. S., & Sanacora, G. (2011). The stressed synapse: the impact of stress and glucocorticoids on glutamate transmission. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 13(1), 22–37. doi: 10.1038/nrn3138.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  124. Potter, M. C., Wyble, B., Hagmann, C. E., & McCourt, E. S. (2014). Detecting meaning in RSVP at 13 ms per picture. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 76(2), 270–279. doi: 10.3758/s13414-013-0605-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Punnaji, M. (2016). Ascending the Supernormal Eightfold Way: Ariyamagga Bhavana. Nugegoda, Sri Lanka: Litho Printers.Google Scholar
  126. Purser, R. E., & Milillo, J. (2015). Mindfulness revisited a Buddhist-based conceptualization. Journal of Management Inquiry, 24(1), 3–24. doi: 10.1177/1056492614532315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Querstret, D., & Cropley, M. (2013). Assessing treatments used to reduce rumination and/or worry: A systematic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 33, 996–1009. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2013.08.004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Rāhula, W. (1974). What the Buddha Taught. New York: Grove Press.Google Scholar
  129. Ricard, M. (2008). Happiness: A guide to developing life’s most important skill. New York: Little Brown.Google Scholar
  130. Rinpoche, D. T., Kunsang, E. P., & Schmidt, M. B. (1998). Carefree dignity: Discourses on training in the nature of mind. Hong Kong: Rangjung Yeshe Publications.Google Scholar
  131. Rodriguez, V. B., Melero-Llorente, J., Bayon, P. C., Cebolla, S., Mira, J., Valverde, C., & Fernandez-Liria, A. (2014). Impact of mindfulness training on attentional control and anger regulation processes for psychotherapists in training. Psychotherapy Research, 24, 202–213. doi: 10.1080/10503307.2013.838651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Rosenzweig, D. (2013). The sisters of mindfulness. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 69(8), 793–804. doi: 10.1002/jclp.22015.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Ruchelli, G., Chapin, H., Darnall, B., Seppala, E., Doty, J., & Mackey, S. (2014). Compassion meditation training for people living with chronic pain and their significant others: a pilot study and mixed methods analysis. The Journal of Pain, 15(4), S117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Ruedy, N. E., & Schweitzer, M. E. (2010). In the moment: The effect of mindfulness on ethical decision making. Journal of Business Ethics, 95, 73–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2001). On happiness and human potentials: A review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Annual Review of Psychology, 52(1), 141–166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Sahdra, B. K., & Shaver, P. R. (2013). Comparing attachment theory and Buddhist psychology. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 23(4), 282–293. doi: 10.1080/10508619.2013.795821.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Sahdra, B. K., Shaver, P. R., & Brown, K. W. (2010). A scale to measure nonattachment: A Buddhist complement to Western research on attachment and adaptive functioning. Journal of Personality Assessment, 92(2), 116–127. doi: 10.1080/00223890903425960.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Sahdra, B. K., Ciarrochi, J., Parker, P. D., Marshall, S., & Heaven, P. (2015). Empathy and nonattachment independently predict peer nominations of prosocial behavior of adolescents. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 263. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00263.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Sahdra, B., Ciarrochi, J., & Parker, P. (2016). Nonattachment and Mindfulness: Related but Distinct Constructs. Psychological Assessment, 28(7), 819–829. doi: 10.1037/pas0000264.
  140. Samsara. (2005). The Round of Rebirth. Access to Insight. Retrieved from
  141. Sayadaw, M. (1995). Satipatthana Vipassana. Access to Insight. Retrieved from
  142. Sayadaw, U. P. (2002). In this Very Life: The Liberation Teachings of the Buddha. Boston: Wisdom Publications.Google Scholar
  143. Sears, S. R., Kraus, S., Carlough, K., & Treat, E. (2011). Perceived benefits and doubts of participants in a weekly meditation study. Mindfulness, 2(3), 167–174. doi: 10.1007/s12671-011-0055-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Shapiro, K. L., Arnell, K. A., & Raymond, J. E. (1997). The attentional blink. Trends in Cognitive Science, 1, 291–296. doi: 10.1016/S1364-6613(97)01094-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Shapiro, S., Schwartz, G. E., & Bonner, G. (1998). Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on medical and premedical students. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 21, 581–599.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Shapiro, S. L., Jazaieri, H., & Goldin, P. R. (2012). Mindfulness based stress reduction effects on moral reasoning and decision making. Journal of Positive Psychology, 7, 504–515. doi: 10.1080/17439760.2012.723732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Shonin, E., & Van Gordon, W. (2013). Searching for the present moment. Mindfulness, 5, 105–107. doi: 10.1007/s12671-013-0248-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Shonin, E., & Van Gordon, W. (2015). Managers’ experiences of meditation awareness training. Mindfulness, 6(4), 899–909. doi: 10.1007/s12671-014-0334-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Shonin, E., Van Gordon, W., & Griffiths, M. (2013). Mindfulness-based interventions: Towards mindful clinical integration. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 194. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00194.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Shonin, E., Van Gordon, W., & Griffiths, M. D. (2014a). The emerging role of Buddhism in clinical psychology: Toward effective integration. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 6(2), 123. doi: 10.1037/a0035859.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Shonin, E., Van Gordon, W., & Griffiths, M. D. (2014b). Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and meditation awareness training (MAT) for the treatment of co-occurring schizophrenia and pathological gambling: A case study. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 12(2), 181–196. doi: 10.1007/s11469-013-9460-3.Google Scholar
  152. Shonin, E., Van Gordon, W., & Griffiths, M. D. (2014c). Meditation awareness training (MAT) for improved psychological well-being: a qualitative examination of participant experiences. Journal of Religion and Health, 53(3), 849–863. doi: 10.1007/s10943-013-9679-0.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Shonin, E., Gordon, W. V., & Griffiths, M. D. (2014d). Are there risks associated with using mindfulness in the treatment of psychopathology? Clinical Practice, 11(4), 389–392. doi: 10.2217/cpr.14.23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Shonin, E., Van Gordon, W., & Griffiths, M. D. (2015). Teaching Ethics in Mindfulness-based Interventions. Mindfulness, 6(6), 1491–1493. doi: 10.1007/s12671-015-0429-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Shroder, T. (1999). Old souls: the scientific evidence for past lives. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  156. Simon, R., & Engström, M. (2015). The default mode network as a biomarker for monitoring the therapeutic effects of meditation. Frontiers in psychology, 6, 776. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00776.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Singh, N. N., Lancioni, G. E., Winton, A. S. W., Singh, A. N., Adkins, A. D., & Singh, J. (2011). Can adult offenders with intellectual disabilities use mindfulness-based procedures to control their deviant sexual arousal? Psychology, Crime and Law, 17, 165–179. doi: 10.1080/10683160903392731.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Singh, N. N., Lancioni, G. E., Karazsia, B. T., Winton, A. S. W., Myers, R. E., Singh, A. N. A., Singh, A. D. A., & Singh, J. (2013a). Mindfulness-based treatment of aggression in individuals with intellectual disabilities: a waiting-list control study. Mindfulness, 4, 158–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Singh, N. N., Lancioni, G. E., Winton, A. S. W., Karazia, B. T., Singh, A. D. A., Singh, A. N. A., & Singh, J. (2013b). A mindfulness-based smoking cessation program for individuals with mild intellectual disability. Mindfulness, 4, 148–157. doi: 10.1007/s12671-012-0148-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Singh, N. N., Lancioni, G. E., Karazsia, B. T., Winton, A. S. W., Singh, J., & Wahler, R. G. (2014a). Shenpa and compassionate abiding: Mindfulness-based practices for anger and aggression by individuals with schizophrenia. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 12, 138–152. doi: 10.1007/s11469-013-9469-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Singh, N. N., Lancioni, G. E., Myers, R. E., Karazsia, B. T., Winton, A. S., & Singh, J. (2014b). A randomized controlled trial of a mindfulness-based smoking cessation program for individuals with mild intellectual disability. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 12(2), 153–168. doi: 10.1007/s11469-013-9471-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Slagter, H. A., Lutz, A., Greischar, L. L., Francis, A. D., Nieuwenhuis, S., Davis, J. M., et al. (2007). Mental training affects distribution of limited brain resources. PLoS Biology, 5(6), e138. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0050138.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Soni, R. L. & Khantipalo, B. (2006). Life’s Highest Blessings: The Maha Mangala Sutta. Access to Insight. Retrieved from
  164. Sternberg, R. (2003). Wisdom, intelligence and creativity synthesized. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511509612.
  165. Stevenson, I. (1990). Phobias in children who claim to remember previous lives. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 4, 243–254.Google Scholar
  166. Stevenson, I. (2000a). The phenomenon of claimed memories of previous lives: Possible interpretations and importance. Medical Hypotheses, 54, 652–659.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Stevenson, I. (2000b). Unusual play in young children who claim to remember previous lives. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 14, 557–570.Google Scholar
  168. Stevenson, I. (2006). Half a career with the Paranormal. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 20(1), 13–21.Google Scholar
  169. Stevenson, I., & Keil, J. (2005). Children of Myanmar who behave like Japanese soldiers: A possible third element in personality. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 19, 171–183.Google Scholar
  170. Sumedho, A. (2011). The Mind and the Way: Buddhist Reflections on Life. Boston: Wisdom Publications.Google Scholar
  171. Tang, Y. Y., & Posner, M. I. (2013). Special issue on mindfulness neuroscience. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 8, 1–3. doi: 10.1093/scan/nss104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Teasdale, W. (1999). The Mystic Heart: Discovering a Universal Spirituality in the World’s Religions. Novato, California: New World Library.Google Scholar
  173. Thanissaro, B. (2010). The Five Aggregates: A Study Guide. Access to Insight. Retrieved from
  174. The Dhammapada. (1996). The Buddha’s Path of Wisdom. Translated from the Pali by Acharya Buddharakkhita. Access to Insight. Retrieved from
  175. The Thirty-one Planes of Existence. (2005). Access to Insight. Retrieved from
  176. Thomsen, D. K., Mehlsen, M. Y., Olesen, F., Hokland, M., Viidik, A., Avlund, K., & Zachariae, R. (2004). Is there an association between rumination and self-reported physical health? A one-year follow-up in a young and an elderly sample. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 27(3), 215–231. doi: 10.1023/B:JOBM.0000028496.41492.34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Trowbridge, R. (2011). Waiting for Sophia: 30 years of conceptualizing wisdom in empirical psychology. Research in Human Development, 8, 111–117. doi: 10.1080/15427609.2011.568872.Google Scholar
  178. Tucker, J. B. (2005). Life before life: a scientific investigation of children’s memories of previous lives. Macmillan.Google Scholar
  179. Tucker, J. B. (2008). Children’s reports of past-life memories: a review. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing, 4(4), 244–248. doi: 10.1016/j.explore.2008.04.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Tucker, J. B. (2013). Return to life: Extraordinary cases of children who remember past lives. Macmillan.Google Scholar
  181. Vallejo, Z., & Amaro, H. (2009). Adaptation of mindfulness-based stress reduction program for addiction relapse prevention. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 37, 192–206. doi: 10.1080/08873260902892287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Van Dam, N. T., Brown, A., Mole, T. B., Davis, J. H., Britton, W. B., & Brewer, J. A. (2015). Development and Validation of the Behavioral Tendencies Questionnaire. PloS One, 10(11), e0140867. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0140867.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Van Gordon, W., Shonin, E., Sumich, A., Sundin, E. C., & Griffiths, M. D. (2014). Meditation awareness training (MAT) for psychological well-being in a sub-clinical sample of university students: a controlled pilot study. Mindfulness, 5(4), 381–391. doi: 10.1007/s12671-012-0191-5.Google Scholar
  184. Van Gordon, W., Shonin, E., Griffiths, M. D., & Singh, N. N. (2015). There is only one mindfulness: Why science and Buddhism need to work together. Mindfulness, 6(1), 49–56. doi: 10.1007/s12671-014-0379-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Vasquez, E.A., Pedersen,W.C., Bushman, B. J., Kelley, N. J., Demeestere, P., & Miller, N. (2013). Lashing out after stewing over public insults: The effects of public provocation, provocation intensity, and rumination on triggered displaced aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 39(1), 13–29. doi: 10.1002/ab.21453.
  186. Wallace, B. A., & Shapiro, S. L. (2006). Mental balance and well-being: building bridges between Buddhism and Western psychology. The American Psychologist, 61(7), 690. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.61.7.690.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Walsh, R. (2015). What is wisdom? Cross-cultural and cross-disciplinary syntheses. Review of General Psychology, 19(3), 278. doi: 10.1037/gpr0000045.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Walshe, M. (1995). The Long Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the Digha Nikaya. Boston: Wisdom Publications.Google Scholar
  189. Weinstein, N., & Ryan, R. M. (2010). When helping helps: Autonomous motivation for prosocial behavior and its influence on well-being for the helper and recipient. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98, 222–244. doi: 10.1037/a0016984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Williams, M. J., McManus, F., Muse, K., & Williams, J. M. (2011). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for severe health anxiety (hypochondriasis): an interpretative phenomenological analysis of patients’ experiences. The British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 50, 379–397. doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8260.2010.02000.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Williams, A. L., Van Ness, P., Dixon, J., & McCorkle, R. (2012). Barriers to meditation by gender and age among cancer family caregivers. Nursing Research, 61(1), 22. doi: 10.1097/NNR.0b013e3182337f4d.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Wilson, T. D. (2009). Know thyself [Special issue: Next big questions in psychology]. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4(4), 384–389. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-6924.2009.01143.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Wittenborn, A. K., Rahmandad, H., Rick, J., & Hosseinichimeh, N. (2016). Depression as a systemic syndrome: mapping the feedback loops of major depressive disorder. Psychological Medicine, 46(03), 551–562. doi: 10.1017/S0033291715002044.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Yechiam, E., & Hochman, G. (2013). Losses as modulators of attention: review and analysis of the unique effects of losses over gains. Psychological Bulletin, 139(2), 497. doi: 10.1037/a0029383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Yusainy, C., & Lawrence, C. (2015). Brief mindfulness induction could reduce aggression after depletion. Consciousness and Cognition, 33C, 125–134. doi: 10.1016/j.concog.2014.12.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Zeidan, F., Adler-Neal, A. L., Wells, R. E., Stagnaro, E., May, L. M., Eisenach, J. C., et al. (2016). Mindfulness-Meditation-Based Pain Relief Is Not Mediated by Endogenous Opioids. The Journal of Neuroscience, 36(11), 3391–3397.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Health Promotion Studies, School of Public HealthUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  2. 2.School of Kinesiology and Health Science, Department of PsychologyYork UniversityTorontoCanada
  3. 3.Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research, Department of Molecular GeneticsUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations