Advertisement

Current Psychology

, Volume 38, Issue 2, pp 387–396 | Cite as

The Predictive Role of Emotion Regulation Strategies on Depressive and Psychosomatic Symptoms in Adolescents

  • Mehmet Ali YıldızEmail author
  • Baki DuyEmail author
Article

Abstract

The main purpose of the current study was to investigate the predictive role of emotion regulation strategies on depression and psychosomatic symptoms in adolescents. The secondary purpose was to examine the predictive role of some demographic variables on depression and psychosomatic symptoms. The participants for this study comprised 319 high school students [G = 155 (48.6%), B = 164 (51.4%)], attending three high schools from 9th to 11th grade, and representing different socioeconomic levels in Diyarbakır city center. A Personal Data Form was used to gather data regarding demographic variables. The Turkish version the Children’s Depression Inventory, Regulation of Emotions Questionnaire, and Psychosomatic Subscale of Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale were the instruments of the study. Standard regression analysis revealed that academic achievement and grade level were significant predictors of depressive symptoms, while academic achievement and gender variables had predictive power for psychosomatic symptoms. Moreover, hierarchical regression analysis indicated that all emotion regulation strategies played a predictive role in depression, while internal dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies and external dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies were significant predictors of psychosomatic symptoms. Taking into consideration that the research findings revealed that emotion regulation strategies played a predictive role on both depression and psychosomatic symptoms, assisting adolescents to develop functional emotion regulation strategies may improve the mental health quality of adolescents.

Keywords

Emotion regulation Depressive symptoms Psychosomatic symptoms Adolescence 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Funding

The study did not get any financial support.

Conflict of Interest

Author MAY (Mehmet Ali Yıldız) declares that he has no conflict of interest. Author BD (Baki DUY) declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Informed Consent

Before distributing the measures, all candidate participants were informed about the study, and asked parental approval from their parents. Hence, school principals were also asked for permission to carry out the study. Thus, informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

References

  1. Aldao, A., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2010). Specificity of cognitive emotion regulation strategies: A transdiagnostic examination. Behaviour, Research & Therapy. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2010.06.002.
  2. Aldao, A., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Schweizer, S. (2010). Emotion-regulation strategies across psychopathology: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2009.11.004.
  3. Arpağ, E. S., İlnem, M., & Köşlü, A. (1999). Psikosomatik dermatozlu çocuklarda depresyon varlığının araştırılması (Investigation of depression in children with psychosomatic dermatosis). Turkderm: Archieves of the Turkish Dermatology and Venerology, 33, 33–36.Google Scholar
  4. Beblo, T., Fernando, S., Klocke, S., Griepenstroh, J., Aschenbrenner, S., & Driessen, M. (2012). Increased suppression of negative and positive emotions in major depression. J. of Affective Disorders. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2012.03.019.
  5. Beck, J. S. (2011). Cognitive behavior Therapy: Basics and beyond. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  6. Bender, P. K., Reinholdt-Dunne, M. L., Esbjørn, B. H., & Pons, F. (2012). Emotion dysregulation and anxiety in children and adolescents: Gender differences. Personality and Individual Differences. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2012.03.027.
  7. Berking, M., & Wupperman, P. (2012). Emotion regulation and mental health: Recent findings, current challenges, and future directions. Current Opinion in Psychiatry. doi: 10.1097/YCO.0b013e3283503669.
  8. Calear, A. L., & Christensen, H. (2010). Systematic review of school-based prevention and early intervention programs for depression. J. of Adolescence. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2009.07.004.
  9. Campbell-Sills, L., & Barlow, D.H. (2007). Incorporating emotion regulation into conceptualizations and treatments of anxiety and mood disorders. J. J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (p. 542-559). New York. The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  10. Ceyhan, A. A., Ceyhan, E., & Kurtyılmaz, Y. (2009). Investigation of university students’ depression. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 36, 75–90.Google Scholar
  11. Clarke, G., DeBar, L. L., Pearson, J. A., Dickerson, J. F., Lynch, F. L., Gullion, C. M., & Leo, M. C. (2016). Cognitive behavioral Therapy in primary Care for Youth Declining Antidepressants: a randomized trial. Pediatrics. doi: 10.1542/peds.2015-1851.
  12. Çuhadaroğlu, F. (1986). Adölesanlarda benlik saygısı (Self-esteem in Adolesencents). (unpublished doctoral thesis), Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.Google Scholar
  13. Dodge, K. A., & Garber, J. (1991). Domains of emotion regulation. In J. Garber & K. A. Dodge (Eds.), The development of emotion regulation and dysregulation (pp. 3–14). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Duy, B., & Yıldız, M. A. (2014). Ergenler için duygu düzenleme ölçeğinin Türkçe’ye uyarlanması (adaptation of the regulation of emotions questionnaire (REQ) for adolescents). Turkish Psychological Counseling & Guidance Journal, 5(41), 23–35.Google Scholar
  15. Ehring, T., Fischer, S., Schnülle, J., Bösterling, A., & Tuschen-Caffier, B. (2008). Characteristics of emotion regulation in recovered depressed versus never depressed individuals. Personality & Individual Differences. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2008.01.013.
  16. Eisenberg, N., Cumberland, A., Spinrad, T. L., Fabes, R. A., Shepard, S. A., Reiser, M., et al. (2001). The relations of regulation and emotionality to children's externalizing and internalizing problem behavior. Child Development. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.00337.
  17. Eskin, M., Ertekin, K., Parlak, H., & Dereboy, Ç. (2008). Lise öğrencisi ergenlerde depresyonun yaygınlığı ve ilişkili olduğu etmenler (prevalence of and factors related to depression in high school students). Turkish Journal of Psychiatry, 19, 382–389.Google Scholar
  18. Fresco, D. M., Moore, M. T., van Dulmen, M. H., Segal, Z. V., Ma, S. H., & Teasdale, J. D. (2007). Initial properties of the experiences questionnaire: Validation of a self-report measure of decentering. Behavior Therapy. doi: 10.1016/j.beth.2006.08.003.
  19. Garber, J., Braafladt, N., & Zeman, J. (1991). The regulation of sad affect: An information-processing perspective. In J. Garber & K. A. Dodge (Eds.), The development of emotion regulation and dysregulation (pp. 208–242). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Garber, J., Braafladt, N., & Weiss, B. (1995). Affect regulation in depressed and non-depressed children and young adolescents. Development and Psychopathology. doi: 10.1017/S0954579400006362.
  21. Gavita, O. A., David, D., Bujoreanu, S., Tiba, A., & Ionutiu, D. R. (2012). The efficacy of a short cognitive–behavioral parent program in the treatment of externalizing behavior disorders in Romanian foster care children: Building parental emotion-regulation through unconditional self- and child-acceptance strategies. Children & Youth Services Review. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2012.03.001.
  22. Gratz, K. L., & Roemer, L. (2004). Multidimensional assessment of emotion regulation and dysregulation: Development, factor structure, and initial validation of the difficulties in emotion regulation scale. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment. doi: 10.1023/B:JOBA.0000007455.08539.94.
  23. Gross, J. J. (1998). The emerging field of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Review of General Psychology, 2(3), 271–299.Google Scholar
  24. Gross, J. J. (1999). Emotion regulation: Past, present, future. Cognition & Emotion. doi: 10.1080/026999399379186.
  25. Gross, J. J. (2001). Emotion regulation in adulthood: Timing is everything. Current Directions in Psychological Science. doi: 10.1111/1467- 08721.00152.
  26. Gross, J. (2002). Emotion regulation: Affective, cognitive, and social consequences. Psychophysiology. doi: 10.1017/s0048577201393198.
  27. Gross, J. J., & Thompson, R. A. (2007). Emotion regulation: Conceptual foundations. In J. J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (p. 3–24). New York. The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  28. Gross, J. J., Richards, J. M., & John, O. (2006). Emotion regulation in everyday life. In D. K. Snyder, J. A. Simpson, & J. H. Hughes (Eds.), Emotion regulation in couples and families: Pathways to dysfunction and health (pp. 13–35). Washington DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  29. Henry, J. D., Castellini, J., Moses, E., & Scott, J. G. (2016). Emotion regulation in adolescents with mental health problems. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology. doi: 10.1080/13803395.2015.1100276.
  30. Huang, C. (2015). Academic achievement and subsequent depression: A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Journal of Child & Family Studies. doi: 10.1007/s10826-013-9855-6.
  31. Izard, C. E., & Kobak, R. R. (1991). Emotions system functioning and emotion regulation. In J. Garber & K. A. Dodge (Eds.), The development of emotion regulation and dysregulation (pp. 303–321). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  32. John, O. P., & Gross, J. J. (2004). Healthy and unhealthy emotion regulation: Personality processes, individual differences and life span development. Journal of Personality. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2004.00298.x.
  33. Kassel, J. D., Bornovalova, M., & Mehta, N. (2006). Generalized expectancies for negative mood regulation predict change in anxiety and depression among college students. Behaviour, Research & Therapy. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2006.07.014.
  34. Kovacs, M. (1985). The Children’s depression inventory (CDI). Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 21(4), 995–998.Google Scholar
  35. Ladwig, K. H., Marten-Mittag, B., Erazo, N., & Gündel, H. (2001). Identifying somatization disorder in a population-based health examination survey psychosocial burden and gender differences. Psychosomatics. doi: 10.1176/appi.psy.42.6.511.
  36. Lazarus, R. S. (1991). Emotion and adaption. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal and coping. New York: Springer Publishing Co..Google Scholar
  38. Liverant, G. I., Brown, T. A., Barlow, D. H., & Roemer, L. (2008). Emotion regulation in unipolar depression: The effects of acceptance and suppression of subjective emotional experience on the intensity and duration of sadness and negative affect. Behaviour. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2008.08.001.
  39. Mason, W. A., January, S. A., Fleming, C. B., Thompson, R. W., Parra, G. R., Haggerty, K. P., et al. (2015). Parent training to reduce problem behaviors over the transition to high school: Tests of indirect effects through improved emotion regulation skills. Children & Youth Services Review. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2015.12.022.
  40. Maurizi, L. K., Grogan-Kaylor, A., Granillo, M. T., & Delva, J. (2013). The role of social relationships in the association between adolescents' depressive symptoms and academic achievement. Children and Youth Services Review. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2013.01.006.
  41. Mazza, J. J., Abbott, R. D., Fleming, C. B., Harachi, T. W., Cortes, R. C., Park, J., et al. (2009). Early predictors of adolescent depression. Journal of Early Adolescence. doi: 10.1177/0272431608324193.
  42. McCauley, E., Carlson, G. A., & Calderon, R. (1991). The role of somatic complaints in the diagnosis of depression in children and adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199107000-00016.
  43. McLeod, J. D., Uemura, R., & Rohrman, S. (2012). Adolescent mental, behavior problems, and academic achievement. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 29, 11–29.Google Scholar
  44. Mineka, S., & Sutton, S. K. (1992). Cognitive biases and emotional disorders. Psychological Science. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.1992.tb00260.x.
  45. Onbaşıoğlu, B. M. (2006). Psikosomatik ve ruhsal rahatsızlığa sahip kişilerin stres ve ilişkili değişkenler açısından incelenmesi (assessment of individuals with psychosomatic and psychological disorders in terms of stress variables), Unpublished master thesis. Ankara: Ankara University.Google Scholar
  46. Öy, B. (1991). Çocuklar için depresyon Ölçeği: Geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması (Children’s depression inventory: A study of validity and reliability). Turkish Journal of Psychiatry, 2, 132–137.Google Scholar
  47. Phillips, K. F. V., & Power, M. J. (2007). A new self-report measure of emotion regulation in adolescents: The regulation of emotions questionnaire. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy. doi: 10.1002/cpp.523.
  48. Pisani, A., Wyman, P., Petrova, M., Schmeelk-Cone, K., Goldston, D., Xia, Y., & Gould, M. (2013). Emotion regulation difficulties, youth–adult relationships, and suicide attempts among high school students in underserved communities. Journal of Youth & Adolescence. doi: 10.1007/s10964-012-9884-2.
  49. Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Russell, J. K., & Seeley, J. R. (2015). Concurrent and prospective associations between metacognition and depression in adolescents. J. Psychol. Abnorm., S1(001), 1–7. doi: 10.4172/2329-9525.1000001. Google Scholar
  51. Schleicher, H. E., Harris, K. J., Catley, D., & Nazir, N. (2009). The role of depression and negative affect regulation expectancies in tobacco smoking among college students. J. of American College Health. doi: 10.3200/JACH.57.5.507-512.
  52. Silk, J. S., Steinberg, L., & Morris, A. S. (2003). Adolescents’ emotion regulation in daily life: Links to depressive symptoms and problem behaviors. Child Development. doi: 10.1046/j.1467-8624.2003.00643.x.
  53. Tetzner, Becker, & Maaz. (2016). Development in multiple areas of life in adolescence: Interrelations between academic achievement, perceived peer acceptance, and self-esteem. Int. J. of Behav. Dev., 00, 1–10. doi: 10.1177/0165025416664432.Google Scholar
  54. Thomback, K., & Muller, R. T. (2015). Relationships among emotion regulation and symptoms during trauma-focused CBT for school-aged children. Child Abuse & Neglect. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2015.09.011.
  55. Thompson, R. A. (1994). Emotion regulation: A theme in search of definition. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-5834.1994.tb01276.x.
  56. Tortella-Feliu, M., Balle, M., & Sesé, A. (2010). Relationships between negative affectivity, emotion regulation, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in adolescents as examined through structural equation modeling. J. of Anxiety Disorders. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.04.012.
  57. Trautwein, U., Lüdtke, O., Köller, O., & Baumert, J. (2006). Self-esteem, academic self-concept, and achievement: How the learning environment moderates the dynamics of self-concept. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90(2), 334–349. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.90.2.334.Google Scholar
  58. Verboom, C. E., Sijtsema, J. J., Verhulst, F. C., Penninx, B. W. J. H., & Ormel, J. (2014). Longitudinal associations between depressive problems, academic performance, and social functioning in adolescent boys and girls. Developmental Psychology. doi: 10.1037/a0032547.
  59. Webb, T. L., Miles, E., & Sheeran, P. (2012). Dealing with feeling: A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of strategies derived from the process model of emotion regulation. Psychological Bulletin. doi: 10.1037/A0027600.
  60. Werner, K., & Gross, J. J. (2010). Emotion regulation and psychopathology. In A. M. Kring & D. M. Sloan (Eds.), Emotion regulation and psychopathology: A transdiagnostic approach to etiology and treatment (pp. 13–37). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  61. Wool, C. A., & Barsky, A. J. (1994). Do women somatize more than men? Gender differences in somatization. Psychosomatics. doi: 10.1016/S0033-3182(94)71738-2.
  62. Wu, P.-C., & Kuo, S.-T. (2015). Academic achievement, self-concept and depression in Taiwanese children: Moderated mediation effect. School Psychology International. doi: 10.1177/0143034314559869.
  63. Zhu, C., Ou, L., Geng, Q., Zhang, M., Ruifan, Y., Jian, C., et al. (2012). Association of somatic symptoms with depression and anxiety in clinical patients of general hospitals in Guangzhou. China General Hospital Psychiatry. doi: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2011.09.005.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Education, Department of Counseling & GuidanceAdıyaman UniversityAdıyamanTurkey
  2. 2.Faculty of Education, Department of Counseling & GuidanceAnadolu UniversityEskişehirTurkey

Personalised recommendations