Current Psychology

, Volume 38, Issue 1, pp 59–65 | Cite as

Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Portuguese Version of the Arousal Predisposition Scale

  • Daniel Ruivo MarquesEmail author
  • Ana Allen Gomes
  • Maria Helena Pinto de Azevedo


The Arousal Predisposition Scale (APS) is an instrument aimed to assess individual differences in self-reported arousability, specifically physiologically arousal. Besides, it is a scale frequently used in stress and sleep-related researches. The principal purpose of this study is to determine the factor structure of the APS through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and to test the goodness-of-fit of one- and two-factor models. A sample of 341 undergraduate medical students of both genders aged 17 to 25 years was enrolled. Beyond the APS, the participants also filled out the Portuguese versions of the Pre-Sleep Arousal Scale (PSAS), Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (FIRST) and the Neuroticism scale of Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) for concurrent validity purposes. From the studied solutions, a modified two-factor model (F1 = emotional reactivity and F2 = trait anxiety) achieved the better fit to the data. The Portuguese version of the APS was also significantly correlated with measures of neuroticism, insomnia, sleep reactivity to stress, and cognitive and somatic arousal. The two-factor modified model appears to display a superior fit to the data, supporting a scoring model of the APS according to two different factors as suggested by a previous research on the Portuguese version. This study supports reliability and validity indicators of the APS and its use in research and applied settings.


Arousal predisposition scale Confirmatory factor analysis Validation Psychometrics Undergraduates 



The co-operation of the professors and students is gratefully acknowledged.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


  1. Azevedo, M. H., Maia, B., Marques, M., Bos, S., Nogueira, V., Soares, M. J., et al. (2010). Psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the pre-sleep arousal scale. Journal of Sleep Research, 19(Suppl. 2), e157.Google Scholar
  2. Bonnet, M., & Arand, D. (2010). Hyperarousal and insomnia: State of the science. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 14(1), 9–15. doi: 10.1016/j.smrv.2009.05.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Byrne, B. (2010). Structural equation modeling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  4. Coren, S. (1988). Prediction of insomnia from arousability predisposition scores: Scale development and cross-validation. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 26(5), 415–420. doi: 10.1016/0005-7967(88)90076-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Coren, S. (1990). The arousal predisposition scale: Normative data. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 28(6), 551–552. doi: 10.3758/BF03334078.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Coren, S., & Mah, K. (1993). Prediction of physiological arousability: A validation of the arousal predisposition scale. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 31(2), 215–219. doi: 10.1016/0005-7967(93)90076-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Dinzeo, T., Cohen, A., Nienow, T., & Docherty, N. (2004). Stress and arousability in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 71(1), 127–135. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2004.01.008.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Drake, C., Richardson, G., Roehrs, T., Scofield, H., & Roth, T. (2004). Vulnerability to stress-related sleep disturbance and hyperarousal. Sleep, 27(2), 285–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Eysenck, H. J., & Eysenck, S. G. (1964). Manual of the Eysenck personality Inventory. London: University of London Press.Google Scholar
  10. Fernández-Mendoza, J., Vela-Bueno, A., Vgontzas, A., Ramos-Pláton, M., Olavarrieta-Bernardino, S., Bixler, E., et al. (2010). Cognitive-emotional hyperarousal as a premorbid characteristic of individuals vulnerable to insomnia. Psychosomatic Medicine, 72(4), 397–403. doi: 10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181d75319.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Field, A. (2013). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics (4th ed.). London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  12. Gores, P., & Weston, R. (2006). A brief guide to structural equation modeling. The Counseling Psychology, 34(5), 719–751. doi: 10.1177/0011000006286345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hair, J., Black, W., Babin, B., & Anderson, R. (2009). Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  14. Harvey, C., Gehrman, P., & Espie, C. (2014). Who is predisposed to insomnia: A review of familial aggregation, stress-reactivity, personality and coping style. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 18(3), 237–247. doi: 10.1016/j.smrv.2013.11.004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Kline, R. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  16. LeBlanc, M., Mérette, C., Savard, J., Ivers, H., Baillargeon, L., & Morin, C. (2009). Incidence and risk factors of insomnia in a population-based sample. Sleep, 32(8), 1027–1037.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lundh, L., & Broman, J. (2000). Insomnia as an interaction between sleep-interfering and sleep-interpreting processes. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 49(5), 299–310. doi: 10.1016/S0022-3999(00)00150-1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Marques, D., Gomes, A. A., & Azevedo, M. H. (2016a). Portuguese version of the arousal predisposition scale (APS). Journal of Sleep Research, 25(Suppl. 1), e159. doi: 10.1111/jsr.12446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Marques, D., Gomes, A. A., & Azevedo, M. H. (2016b). Portuguese version of the arousal predisposition scale: Preliminary evidence for a two-factor structure in a nonclinical sample. Manuscript submitted for publicationGoogle Scholar
  20. Marques, D., Gomes, A., Ferreira, M., & Azevedo, M. H. (2016c). Don’t worry, sleep well: Predictors of sleep loss over worry. Sleep and Biological Rhythms, 14(3), 309–318. doi: 10.1007/s41105-016-0060-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Marques, D., Gomes, A., Drake, C., Roth, T., & Azevedo, M. H. (2016d). Assessing stress-induced sleep reactivity in college students: The European Portuguese version of the Ford insomnia response to stress test (FIRST). Behavioral Sleep Medicine. doi: 10.1080/15402002.2016.1210151.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Miller, C., Kyle, S., Gordon, C., Espie, C., Grunstein, R., Mullins, A., et al. (2015). Physiological markers of arousal change with psychological treatment for insomnia: A preliminary investigation. PloS One, 10(12), e0145317. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0145317.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Nicassio, P. M., Mendlowitz, D. R., Fussell, J. J., & Petras, L. (1985). The phenomenology of the pre-sleep state: The development of the pre-sleep arousal scale. Behaviour Research Therapy, 23(3), 263–271. doi: 10.1016/0005-7967(85)90004-X.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Perlis, M., Shaw, P., Cano, G., & Espie, C. (2011). Models of insomnia. In M. Kryger, T. Roth, & W. Dement (Eds.), Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine (5ed.) (pp. 850–865). Elsevier Saunders: Missouri.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Riemann, D., Spiegelhalder, K., Feige, B., Voderholzer, U., Berger, M., Perlis, M., & Nissen, C. (2010). The hyperarousal model of insomnia: A review of the concept and its evidence. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 14(1), 19–31. doi: 10.1016/j.smrv.2009.04.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Silva, C. F., Azevedo, M. H., & Dias, M. R. (1994). Estudo Padronizado do Trabalho por Turnos. Versao Experimental. Instituto de Psicologia Médica da Faculdade de Medicina: Universidade de Coimbra.Google Scholar
  27. Silva, C. F., Azevedo, M. H. P., & Dias, M. R. (1995). Estudo padronizado do trabalho por turnos – versão portuguesa do SSI. Psychologica, 13, 27–36.Google Scholar
  28. Tabachnick, B., & Fidell, L. (2012). Using multivariate statistics (6th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel Ruivo Marques
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Ana Allen Gomes
    • 3
    • 4
  • Maria Helena Pinto de Azevedo
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Education and PsychologyUniversity of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de SantiagoAveiroPortugal
  2. 2.Institute for Biomedical Imaging and Life Sciences, IBILICoimbraPortugal
  3. 3.Faculty of Psychology and Educational SciencesUniversity of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal
  4. 4.CINEICC - Centro de Investigação do Núcleo de Estudos e Intervenção Cognitivo-Comportamental / Research & Development Unit (FCT): Cognitive and Behavioural Center for Research and InterventionCoimbraPortugal
  5. 5.Faculty of MedicineUniversity of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal

Personalised recommendations