Current Psychology

, Volume 38, Issue 1, pp 40–49 | Cite as

Intrapersonal Variables Associated with Academic Adjustment in United States College Students

  • Sonja Montgomery
  • David H. Gregg
  • Cheryl L. SomersEmail author
  • Francesca Pernice-Duca
  • Alan Hoffman
  • Marjorie Beeghly


The current study sampled students from a college in the United States Midwest, and examined the independent predictive strength of a variety of intrapersonal factors (alcohol use, procrastination, perfectionism, perceived level of stress, and coping style) with academic adjustment while controlling for academic motivation. These relations were also examined for moderation by academic motivation. The sample consisted of 273 college students, ranging in age from 18 to 25. Motivation contributed a significant amount of variance in predicting academic adjustment, and the examined predictor variables explained a significant amount of additional variance above that of motivation. Amotivation moderated associations of multiple intrapersonal variables with academic adjustment.


Emerging adults Motivation Academic adjustment Coping Stress Procrastination Perfectionism Alcohol 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

All contributing authors to this study (SM, DG, CLS, AF, FD, & MB) declare that they have no conflict of interest.


This study had no external funding.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Assent was obtained from all participants and their primary caregivers provided written informed consent.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sonja Montgomery
    • 1
  • David H. Gregg
    • 1
  • Cheryl L. Somers
    • 1
    Email author
  • Francesca Pernice-Duca
    • 1
  • Alan Hoffman
    • 1
  • Marjorie Beeghly
    • 2
  1. 1.345 College of EducationWayne State UniversityDetroitUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyWayne State UniversityDetroitUSA

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