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Grit, Self-Esteem, Learning Strategies and Attitudes and Estimated and Achieved Course Grades among College Students


Being aware and accurate of how one will perform in a college class may relate to personal qualities, how one feels about oneself, learning strategies, and attitudes towards learning. In this study, 302 undergraduate students completed a questionnaire in the first 2 weeks of the semester, which included estimated grade in a particular class and measures of grit, self-esteem, learning strategies, and attitudes towards lifelong learning. Perseverance of effort, a component of grit, and self-esteem predicted estimated grade. There were no significant predictors of achieved final grade. Self-esteem, attitudes towards lifelong learning and general strategies for learning predicted perseverance of effort. Self-esteem and general strategies for learning predicted consistency of interest, another component of grit. For college students, grit may still be in flux through their experiences learning and achieving in college.

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Correspondence to Robert S. Weisskirch.

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There was no funding for this study.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Conflict of Interest

Robert S. Weisskirch declares that he/she has no conflict of interest.

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Weisskirch, R.S. Grit, Self-Esteem, Learning Strategies and Attitudes and Estimated and Achieved Course Grades among College Students. Curr Psychol 37, 21–27 (2018).

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  • Grit
  • Self-esteem
  • Learning strategies
  • Attitudes towards lifelong learning