Current Psychology

, Volume 29, Issue 2, pp 135–143 | Cite as

Self-Knowledge and Narcissism in Iranians: Relationships with Empathy and Self-Esteem

  • Nima Ghorbani
  • P. J. WatsonEmail author
  • Fatemeh Hamzavy
  • Bart L. Weathington


Self-knowledge is a Muslim psychological ideal, but social theory suggests that the dynamics of narcissism and self-esteem may challenge the stability of Muslim society. In Iranian university students, an Integrative Self-Knowledge Scale displayed relationships with narcissism, self-esteem, and empathy that reflected relative mental health; and the Narcissistic Personality Inventory included factors that pointed toward adjustment as well as maladjustment. Evidence that narcissism predicted positive forms of self-functioning was more obvious in men than in women. Outcomes further confirmed that self-knowledge is as an adaptive process in Iran and that narcissism and self-esteem may have noteworthy implications for understanding Muslim society.


Narcissism Self-knowledge Empathy Self-esteem Iran 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nima Ghorbani
    • 1
  • P. J. Watson
    • 2
    Email author
  • Fatemeh Hamzavy
    • 1
  • Bart L. Weathington
    • 2
  1. 1.University of TehranTehranIran
  2. 2.Psychology/Department #2803University of Tennessee at ChattanoogaChattanoogaUSA

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