Eye color Predicts Disagreeableness in North Europeans: Support in Favor of Frost (2006)
- 429 Downloads
The current study investigates whether eye color provides a marker of Agreeableness in North Europeans. Extrapolating from Frost’s (2006) research uncovering an unusually diverse range of hair and eye color in northern Europe, we tested the hypothesis that light eyed individuals of North European descent would be less agreeable (a personality marker for competitiveness) when compared to their dark eyed counterparts, whereas there would be no such effect for people of European descent in general. The hypothesis was tested in Australia to provide consistent environmental conditions for both groups of people. Results support the hypothesis. Implications and conclusions are discussed.
KeywordsEye color Personality Melanin Competitiveness Agreeableness
We would like to thank Dr Peter Frost for his comments on earlier versions of this manuscript.
- Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2005). Main countries of birth of the population. (No. 3412.0). Canberra: Australian Capital Territory.Google Scholar
- Bjorkqvist, K., Osterman, K., & Kaukiainen, A. (1992). The development of direct and indirect aggressive strategies in males and females. In K. Bjorkqvist & P. Niemela (Eds.), Of mice and women: Aspects of female aggression (pp. 51–64). San Diego: Academic.Google Scholar
- Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Professional manual for the NEO personality inventory. Odessa: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
- Eron, L. D., Bjorkqvist, K., & Niemela, P. (1992). Gender differences in violence: Biology and/or socialization? In Of mice and women. Aspects of female aggression (pp. 89–97). San Diego: Academic.Google Scholar
- Gary, A. L., & Glover, J. (1976). Eye color, sex and children’s behavior. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.Google Scholar
- International Personality Item Pool. (2001). A scientific collaboratory for the development of advanced measures of personality traits and other individual differences. Retrieved May 23, 2006 from http://ipip.ori.org/.
- John, O. P., Donahue, E. M., & Kentle, R. L. (1991). The big five inventory: Versions 4a and 54. Berkley: Technical report, Institute of Personality and Social Research, University of California.Google Scholar
- Larsson, M. (1998). Iris patterns and personality: Does a relationship exist that can be useful for the five factor model and behavioral genetics? Paper presented at Behavioral Genetics Association’s Annual Meeting in Stockholm, Sweden 1998.Google Scholar
- Maynard-Smith, J. (1982). Evolution and the theory of games. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Price, C. (1999). Australian population: ethnic origins. People and Place, 7, 12–16.Google Scholar
- Riedl, B. I. M. (1990). Morphological and metrical characteristics of the male and female Leitmotif in mate-selection and its impact on the selection of the spouse. Homo, 41, 72–85.Google Scholar
- Schweder, B. I. M. (1994). The impact of the face on long-term human relationships. Homo, 45, 74–93.Google Scholar
- Smuts, B. B. (1987). Sexual competition and mate choice. In B. B. Smuts et al. (Eds.), Primate societies (pp. 385–399). Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
- Thornhill, R., & Gangestad, S. W. (1993). Averageness, symmetry and parasite resistance. Human Facial Beauty, 4, 237–269.Google Scholar
- Worthy, M. (1999). Eye color: A key to human and animal behavior. Nebraska: Lincoln. To Excel (Original work published 1974).Google Scholar