Advertisement

Current Psychology

, 28:211 | Cite as

Mindfulness in Iran and the United States: Cross-Cultural Structural Complexity and Parallel Relationships with Psychological Adjustment

  • Nima Ghorbani
  • P. J. Watson
  • Bart L. Weathington
Article

Abstract

In theory, mindfulness has a role to play in resolving intercultural conflicts. This suggestion rests upon the relatively untested presumption that mindfulness operates similarly across cultures. In a test of this presumption, university students from two countries that are often in conflict at the governmental level, Iran (N = 723) and the United States (N = 900), responded to the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (Brown and Ryan Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 84(4):822–848, 2003), along with an array of other psychological measures. This Mindfulness Scale displayed structural complexities in both societies, but a measurement invariant subscale was nevertheless identified. Similar cross-cultural evidence of concurrent validity was obtained in relationships with wide-ranging measures of adjustment. Nonsignificant linkages with Public Self-Consciousness and Self-Monitoring demonstrated discriminant validity in both societies. These data identified mindfulness as a cross-culturally similar psychological process that could plausibly have a role in resolving intercultural conflicts.

Keywords

Mindfulness Iran United States Measurement invariance Psychological adjustment 

References

  1. Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefit of being present: mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(4), 822–848.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Brown, K. W., Ryan, R. M., & Cresswell, J. D. (2007a). Mindfulness: theoretical foundations and evidence for its salutary effects. Psychological Inquiry, 18, 211–237.Google Scholar
  3. Brown, K. W., Ryan, R. M., & Cresswell, J. D. (2007b). Addressing fundamental questions about mindfulness. Psychological Inquiry, 18, 272–281.Google Scholar
  4. Caprara, G. V., & Cervone, D. (2003). A conception of personality for a psychology of human strengths: Personality as an agentic, self-regulation system. In L. G. Aspinwall & U. M. Staudinger (Eds.), A psychology of human strengths (pp. 61–74). Washington DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  5. Carlson, L., & Brown, K. (2005). Validation of the mindful attention awareness scale in a cancer population. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 58, 29–33.Google Scholar
  6. Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. A. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Psychology, 24, 355–396.Google Scholar
  7. Cordon, S. L., & Finney, S. J. (2008). Measurement invariance of the mindful attention awareness scale across adult attachment style. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 40, 228–245.Google Scholar
  8. Costello, C. G., & Comrey, A. L. (1967). Scales for measuring depression and anxiety. The Journal of Psychology, 66, 303–313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Deiner, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Eisenberg, N., & Ota Wang, V. (2003). Toward a positive psychology: Social developmental and cultural contributions. In L. G. Aspinwall & U. M. Staudinger (Eds.), A psychology of human strengths (pp. 117–129). Washington DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  12. Epstein, S. (1998). Constructive thinking. Westport: Praeger.Google Scholar
  13. Fenigstein, A., Scheier, M. F., & Buss, A. H. (1975). Public and private self-consciousness: assessment and theory. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43, 522–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ghorbani, N., & Watson, P. J. (2006). Validity of experiential and reflective self-knowledge scales: relationships with basic need satisfaction among Iranian factory workers. Psychological Reports, 98, 727–733.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Ghorbani, N., & Watson, P. J. (2009). Mysticism and self-determination in Iran: multidimensional complexity of relationships with basic need satisfaction and mindfulness. Archive for the Psychology of Religion, 31, 75–90.Google Scholar
  16. Ghorbani, N., Bing, M. N., Watson, P. J., Davison, H. K., & Mack, D. A. (2002). Self-reported emotional intelligence: construct similarity and functional dissimilarity of higher-order processing in Iran and the United States. International Journal of Psychology, 37, 297–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ghorbani, N., Bing, M. N., Watson, P. J., Davison, H. K., & LeBreton, D. L. (2003a). Individualist and collectivist values: evidence of compatibility in Iran and the United States. Personality and Individual Differences, 35, 431–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ghorbani, N., Watson, P. J., Bing, M. N., Davison, H. K., & LeBreton, D. (2003b). Two facets of self-knowledge: cross-cultural development of measures in Iran and the United States. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 129, 238–268.Google Scholar
  19. Ghorbani, N., Watson, P. J., Krauss, S. W., Davison, H. K., & Bing, M. N. (2004). Private self-consciousness factors: relationships with need for cognition, locus of control, and obsessive thinking in Iran and the United States. The Journal of Social Psychology, 144, 359–372.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Ghorbani, N., Ghramaleki, A. H., & Watson, P. J. (2005). Constructive thinking inventory: evidence of validity among Iranian managers. Psychological Reports, 96, 115–121.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Ghorbani, N., Watson, P. J., & Hargis, M. B. (2008). Integrative self-knowledge correlations and incremental validity of a cross-cultural measure developed in Iran and the United States. The Journal of Psychology, 142, 395–412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Ghorbani, N., Cunningham, C. J. L., & Watson, P. J. (in press). Comparative analysis of integrative self-knowledge, mindfulness, and private self-consciousness in predicting responses to stress in Iran. International Journal of Psychology.Google Scholar
  23. Gross, J. J., & John, O. P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 348–362.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Leary, M. R., Adams, C. E., & Tate, E. B. (2006). Hypo-egoic self-regulation: exercising self-control by diminishing the influence of the self. Journal of Personality, 74, 1803–1831.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. LeBaron, M. (2003). Bridging cultural conflicts: A new approach for a changing world. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  26. Magnusson, D., & Mahoney, J. L. (2003). A holistic person approach for research on positive development. In L. G. Aspinwall & U. M. Staudinger (Eds.), A psychology of human strengths (pp. 227–243). Washington DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  27. Mittal, B., & Balasubramanian, S. K. (1987). Testing the dimensionality of the self-consciousness scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 57, 53–68.Google Scholar
  28. Rosenberg, M. (1989). Society and the adolescent self-image (Revth ed.). Middleton: Wesleyan University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Ryan, R. M., & Frederick, C. M. (1997). On energy, personality and health: subjective vitality as a dynamic reflection of well-being. Journal of Personality, 65, 529–565.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Sanavio, E. (1988). Obsessions and compulsions: the Padua inventory. Behavior Research and Therapy, 26, 169–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sheldon, K. M., Ryan, R. M., & Reis, H. (1996). What makes for a good day? Competence and autonomy in the day and in the person. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 1270–1279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Snyder, M., & Gangestad, S. (1986). On the nature of self-monitoring: matters of assessment, matters of validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(1), 125–139.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Ting-Toomey, S. (1999). Communicating across cultures. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  34. Trapnell, P. D., & Campbell, J. D. (1999). Private self-consciousness and the five-factor model of personality: distinguishing rumination from reflection. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 284–304.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Vandenberg, R. J., & Lance, C. E. (2000). A review and synthesis of the measurement invariance literature: suggestions, practices, and recommendations for organizational research. Organizational Research Methods, 3, 4–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Watson, P. J., Morris, R. J., Ramsey, A., Hickman, S. E., & Waddell, M. G. (1996). Further contrasts between self-reflectiveness and internal state awareness factors of private self-consciousness. The Journal of Psychology, 130, 183–192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Watson, P. J., Ghorbani, N., Davison, H. K., Bing, M. N., Hood, R. W., Jr., & Ghramaleki, A. F. (2002). Negatively reinforcing extrinsic personal religious motivations: religious orientation, inner awareness, and mental health in Iran and the United States. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 12, 255–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nima Ghorbani
    • 1
  • P. J. Watson
    • 2
  • Bart L. Weathington
    • 2
  1. 1.University of TehranTehranIran
  2. 2.Psychology DepartmentUniversity of Tennessee at ChattanoogaChattanoogaUSA

Personalised recommendations