Current Psychology

, Volume 22, Issue 4, pp 348–367 | Cite as

Age differences in reasons for exercising

  • Kathleen M. Trujillo
  • Ruby R. Brougham
  • David A. Walsh
Article

Abstract

We tested the hypothesis that there are age-related differences in reasons for exercising. Adults (n=461), ranging in age from 18 to 86, were asked to indicate if they had considered different types of consequences in their exercise decisions, and how important they thought those consequences were to consider. A three-factor consequence measure examined individuals’ consideration and importance evaluations of various categories of exercise consequences. Results provided mixed support for the hypotheses that younger individuals exhibit greater concern for interpersonal attraction outcomes, while older individuals exhibit greater concern for health outcomes. These results have implications for designing educational and motivational training programs.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. American Association of Retired Persons (AARP). (1995). A profile of older Americans. Washington, D.C.: AARP.Google Scholar
  2. Banks, S. M., Salovey, P., Greener, S., Rothman, A., Moyer, A., Beauvais, J., & Epel, E. (1995). The effects on message framing on mammography utilization. Health Psychology, 14 (2), 178–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Blair, S. N., Wells, C. L., Weathers, R. D., & Paffenbarger, Jr., S. R. 1994). Chronic disease: The physical activity dose-response controversy. In R. K. Dishman (Ed.), Advances in Exercise Adherence. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers.Google Scholar
  4. Bouchard, C., Shephard, R. J., & Stephens, T. (1994). The Consensus Statement. Physical Activity, Fitness, and Health. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers.Google Scholar
  5. Buhler, C. (1935). The curve of life as studied in biographies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 19, 405–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Buhler, C., & Massarik, F. (1968). The course of human life. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  7. Caspersen, C. J., Merritt, R. K., & Stephens, T. (1994). International physical activity patterns: A methodological perspective. Advances in Exercise Adherence. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers.Google Scholar
  8. Center for Disease Control. (1996). Surgeon General's report on physical activity and health. Atlanta, GA.Google Scholar
  9. Cousins, S. (2000). “My heart couldn't take it”: Older women's beliefs about exercise benefits and risks. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 55B (5), 283–294.Google Scholar
  10. Crespo, C. J., Keteyian, S. J., Heath, G. W., & Sempos, C. T. (1996). Leisure-time physical activity among U.S. adults: Results from the third national health and nutrition examination survey. Archives of Internal Medicine, 156 (1), 93–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cross, S., & Markus, H. (1991). Possible selves across the life span. Human Development, 34, 230–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. De Bourdeaudhuij, I., & Sallis (2002). Relative contribution of psychosocial variables to the explanation of physical activity in three population-based adult samples. Preventive Medicine, 34, 279–288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Detweiler, J. B., Bedell, B.T., Salovey, P.; Pronin, E.; & Rothman, A. J. (1999). Message framing and sunscreen use: Gain-framed messages motivate beach-goers. Health Psychology, 18 (2), 189–196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dishman, R. K., & Sallis, J. F. (1994). Determinants and interventions for physical activity and exercise. In C. Bouchard, R. J. Shephard, & T. Stephens (Eds.), Physical Activity, Fitness, and Health. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers.Google Scholar
  15. Duda, J. L., & Tappe, M. K. (1988). Predictors of personal investment in physical activity among middle-aged and older adults. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 66, 543–549.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Emery, C. F., & Blumenthal, J. A. (1991). Effects of physical exercise on psychological and cognitive functioning of older adults. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 13 (3), 99–107.Google Scholar
  17. Erikson, E. H. (1963). Childhood and society. (2nd ed.). New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  18. Erikson, E. H. (1985). The life cycle completed. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  19. Gill, K., & Overdorf, V. (1994). Incentives for exercise in younger and older women. Journal of Sport Behavior, 17 (2), 87–97.Google Scholar
  20. Havighurst, R. J. (1972). Developmental Tasks and Education. (3rd ed.) New York: Longman Inc.Google Scholar
  21. Kendzierski, D., & LaMastro, V. D. (1988). Reconsidering the role of attitudes in exercise behavior: A decision theoretical approach. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 18 (9), 737–759.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Koslow, R. E. (1988). Age-related reasons for expressed interest in exercise and weight control. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 18 (4), 349–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. McAuley, E. (1994). Physical Activity and Psychosocial Outcomes. In C. Bouchard, R. J. Shephard, & T. Stephens (Eds.), Physical Activity, Fitness, and Health. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers.Google Scholar
  24. McDonald, R. (1985). Factor Analysis and related methods. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. (pp 52-62).Google Scholar
  25. Monk, A. (1994). Retirement and aging: An introduction to The Columbia retirement handbook. In A. Monk (Ed.), The Columbia retirement handbook. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Moore, A., Dorros, C, Kiel, D. O'Sullivan, P, & Silliman, R. (1995). Preventive health attitudes and practice of elderly persons attending senior centers. Rhode Island Medicine, 78 (4), 115–117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Neugarten, B. L. Moore, J. W., & Lowe J.C. (1965). Age norms, age constraints and adult socialization. American Journal of Sociology, 70 (1), 710–717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Newman, B. M., Newman, P. R. (1975). Psychosocial theory. Development through life: A psychosocial approach. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole. (pp. 21-52).Google Scholar
  29. Nurmi, J.E. (1992). Age differences in adult life goals, concerns and their temporal extension: A life course approach to future-oriented motivation. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 15 (4), 487–508.Google Scholar
  30. Plante, T. G., & Rodin, J. (1990). Physical fitness and enhanced psychological health. Current Psychology: Research and Reviews, 9 (1), 3–24.Google Scholar
  31. Powell, K. E., & Blair, S. N. (1994). The public health burdens of sedentary health habits: Theoretical but realistic estimates. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 26, 851–856.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Prohaska, T. R., Leventhal, E. A., Leventhal, H., & Keller, M. L. (1985). Health practices and illness cognition in young, middle aged, and elderly adults. Journal of Gerontology, 40 (5), 569–578.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Ransford, H. E., & Palisi, B. J. (1996). Aerobic exercise, subjective health, and psychological well-being within age and gender subgroups. Social Science and Medicine, 42 (11), 1555–1559.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Scharff, D. P., Homan, S., Kreuter, M., & Brennan, L. (1999). Factors associated with physical activity in women across the life span: Implications for program development. Women & Health, 29 (2), 115–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Shephard, R. J. (1994). Determinants of exercise in people aged 65 years and older. In R. K. Dishman (Ed.), Advances in Exercise Adherence. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers.Google Scholar
  36. Stephens, T. & Caspersen, C. J. (1994). The demography of physical activity. Physical Activity, Fitness, and Health: International Proceedings and Consensus Statement. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers.Google Scholar
  37. Thomas, J. R., Landers, D. M., Salazar, W., & Etnier, J. (1994). Exercise and cognitive function. In C. Bouchard, R. J. Shephard, & T. Stephens (Eds.), Physical Activity, Fitness, and Health. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers.Google Scholar
  38. U.S. Bureau of the Census. (1998). Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1998 (118th Edition). Washington, D.C.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kathleen M. Trujillo
    • 1
  • Ruby R. Brougham
    • 2
  • David A. Walsh
    • 3
  1. 1.St. Ambrose UniversityUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyChapman UniversityOrange
  3. 3.University of Southern CaliforniaUSA

Personalised recommendations