Current Psychology

, Volume 23, Issue 3, pp 189–202 | Cite as

Intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivational orientations: Their role in university adjustment, stress, well-being, and subsequent academic performance

  • Sarah R. Baker


The aim of this study was two-fold; first, to examine the relationship between motivational orientations and adjustment to university, stress, and well-being in a sample of students during their second year of university and second, to assess the predictive value of motivational orientations in determining subsequent academic performance. Controlling for gender and age, amotivated behaviors led to worse psychosocial adjustment to university, higher levels of perceived stress, and greater psychological distress while studying. In contrast, intrinsically motivated behaviors (to know) were associated with lower levels of stress. In relation to academic performance, neither extrinsic or intrinsic motivation, nor amotivation were related to subsequent academic achievement. Both gender and entry qualifications were significant predictors of performance; women and those individuals with greater academic aptitude prior to entering university had higher marks. These results are discussed with reference to Deci and Ryan’s (1985, 1991) self-determination theory.


Academic Performance Intrinsic Motivation Grade Point Average Autonomy Support Extrinsic Motivation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of SheffieldUK

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