Advertisement

Human Rights Review

, Volume 18, Issue 1, pp 45–66 | Cite as

“Walking a Tightrope: Human Rights, Basic Human Needs and US Support for Development Projects in the Multilateral Development Banks”

  • Daniel Braaten
Article

Introduction

US foreign aid serves many purposes. One of its main rationales is to provide economic relief to those in need. Equally important are the political goals the USA pursues with foreign aid such as helping allies and promoting domestic economic prosperity. These political goals can also be country-specific, for example using foreign aid to try and leverage changes in a countries respect for human rights. In many instances, however, these goals can work at cross-purposes. When the USA uses the denial of foreign aid as leverage against a rights repressive state, then the economic relief from that aid is denied to the population that needs it. For the USA, there is a way around this problem known as the basic human needs exemption. Basic human needs (also known as the “needy people clause”) refer to a development strategy briefly favored by US policy makers in the late 1970s that focused specifically on providing assistance to poor people (Curry 1989). As an overall strategy...

Keywords

Foreign Policy Human Trafficking Physical Integrity Female Genital Mutilation Executive Board 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Andersen TM, Hansen H, Markussen T (2006) US politics and World Bank IDA-lending. The Journal of Development Studies 42 5: 772-794.Google Scholar
  2. Apodaca C (2005) U.S. Human rights policy and foreign assistance: A short history. Ritsumeikan International Affairs 3: 63-80.Google Scholar
  3. Apodaca C, Stohl, M (1999) United States human rights policy and foreign assistance. International Studies Quarterly 43 1: 185-198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Babb, S (2009) Behind the Development Banks. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Braaten, D (2014a) Determinants of US foreign policy in multilateral development banks: The place of human rights. Journal of Peace Research 51 4: 515-527.Google Scholar
  6. Braaten, D (2014b) What Rights and Which Countries?: US Human Rights Policy in the Multilateral Development Banks. Journal of Human Rights 13 2: 205-229.Google Scholar
  7. Curry Jr., RL (1989) The basic needs strategy, the Congressional mandate, and U.S. foreign aid policy. Journal of Economic Issues 23 4: 1085-1096.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Demirel-Pegg T, Moskowitz J (2009) US aid allocation: the nexus of human rights, democracy, and development. Journal of Peace Research 46 2: 181-198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fariss, CJ (2010) The strategic substitution of United States foreign aid. Foreign Policy Analysis 6 2 107-131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Freedom House (2012) Freedom in the World Survey, https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/freedom-world-2012.VVCprVpCczZ, (last accessed 13-05-2016).
  11. Freedom House (2006) Methodology, http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=35&year=2006 (last accessed 13-05-2016).
  12. Gelman, A (2005) Analysis of variance—Why it is more important than ever. The Annals of Statistics 33 1 1-53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gibney M, Cornett L, Wood R (2012) Political Terror Scale 1976-2012 www.politicalterrorscale.org (last accessed 13-05-2016).
  14. Hafner-Burton EM, Ron J (2009) Seeing double: Human rights impact through qualitative and quantitative eyes. World Politics 61 2: 360-401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Heinrich T (2013) When is Foreign Aid Selfish, When is it Selfless?. Journal of Politics 75 2: 422-435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hicks N, Streeten P (1979) Indicators of Development: The Search for a Basic Needs Yardstick. World Development 7 6: 567-580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. International Monetary Fund (2012) World Economic Outlook Database, http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2011/02/weodata/index.aspx (Last accessed 14-05-2016).
  18. King G, Zeng, L (2001) Logistic regression in rare events data. Political Analysis 9 2: 137-163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lai B (2003) Examining the goals of US foreign assistance in the post-cold war period, 1991-96. Journal of Peace Research 40 1: 103-128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lebovic J, Voeten E (2009) The cost of shame: International organizations and foreign aid in the punishing of human rights violators. Journal of Peace Research 46 1: 79-97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Meernik, James, Eric L. Krueger, and Steven C. Poe. 1998. “Testing models of US foreign policy: Foreign aid during and after the cold war.” Journal of Politics 60(1): 63-85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Milner HV, Tingley, D (2012) The choice for multilateralism: Foreign aid and American foreign policy. Review of International Organizations 4 3: 269-291. Google Scholar
  23. Neumayer E (2003) The Determinants of Aid Allocation by Regional Multilateral Development Banks and United Nations Agencies. International Studies Quarterly 47 1: 101-122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nielsen RA (2013) Rewarding Human Rights? Selective Aid Sanctions against Repressive States. International Studies Quarterly 57 4: 791-803.Google Scholar
  25. Pape R (1997) Why Economic Sanctions do not Work. International Security 22 2: 90-136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rosenblum MR, Salehyan, I (2004) Norms and interests in US asylum enforcement. Journal of Peace Research 41 6: 677-697.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sartorius RH, Ruttan VW (1989) The sources of the Basic Human Needs Mandate. The Journal of Developing Areas 23 3: 331-362.Google Scholar
  28. Strand JR., Zappile T (2015) Always Vote for Principle, Though You May Vote Alone: American Political Support for Multilateral Development Loans, 2004-2011. World Development 72: 224-239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Streeten PP (1979) Basic Needs: Premises and Promises. Journal of Policy Modeling 1: 136-146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. United Nations Development Programme (2013) Human Development Reports. http://hdr.undp.org/en/69206 (Last accessed 14-05-2016).
  31. United States Agency for International Development (2012) US Overseas Loans and Grants. http://gbk.eads.usaidallnet.gov/ (Last accessed 14-05-2016).
  32. United States Agency for International Development (2014) USAID History http://www.usaid.gov/who-we-are/usaid-history (Last accessed 14-05-2016).
  33. United States Census Bureau (2012a) Foreign Trade Statistics http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/statistics/index.html (Last accessed 14-05-2016).
  34. United States Census Bureau (2012b) International Database http://www.census.gov/population/international/data/idb/informationGateway.php (Last accessed 14-05-2016).
  35. United States Department of State (2012) United States Participation in the United Nations. http://www.state.gov/p/io/rls/rpt/c47366.htm (Last accessed 14-05-2016).
  36. United States Department of Treasury (2012) Loan Review Votes http://www.treasury.gov/resource-center/international/development-banks/Pages/data.aspx (Last accessed 14-05-2016).
  37. U.S. Congress (1977) International Financial Institutions Act Public Law. 95-118.Google Scholar
  38. von Soest C, Wahman M (2015) Not all dictators are equal: Coups, fraudulent elections, and the selective targeting of democratic sanctions. Journal of Peace Research 52 1: 17-31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wade R (2002) US hegemony and the World Bank: The fight over people and ideas. Review of International Political Economy 9 2: 201-229.Google Scholar
  40. Whang, T (2011) Playing to the Home Crowd? Symbolic Use of Economic Sanctions in the United States. International Studies Quarterly 55 3: 787-801.Google Scholar
  41. Woods N (2003) US Hegemony and the international financial institutions. In: Foot R, MacFarlane SN, Mastanduno M (ed) US hegemony and international organizations. Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp 92-115 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Texas Lutheran UniversitySeguinUSA

Personalised recommendations