Advertisement

Human Rights Review

, Volume 13, Issue 4, pp 443–471 | Cite as

An Umbrella With Holes: Respect for Non-Derogable Human Rights During Declared States of Emergency, 1996–2004

  • David L. Richards
  • K. Chad Clay
Article

Abstract

This paper examines the effects of non-derogability status for seven human rights during declared states of emergency from 1996 to 2004 in 195 countries. For this purpose, we create several original measures of countries’ state of emergency status. Our analysis finds the intended protections from the special legal status of non-derogable rights to be anemic, at best, during declared emergencies. This finding begs a reconsideration of both the utility of the “non-derogable” categorization in both international and municipal law, and the conditions under which declared states of emergency might be justified.

Keywords

Human rights International law Non-derogable rights Physical integrity rights Empowerment rights State of emergency 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Richard Wilson and David Cingranelli for their counsel. This research has benefitted from support by the National Science Foundation (NSF) via Grant Nos. SES- 0318273, SES- 0647969, and SES- 0647916. The NSF is not responsible for any opinions, findings, or conclusions related to this work.

References

  1. Abouharb, M. Rodwan, and David L. Cingranelli. 2006. “The Human Rights Effects of World Bank Structural Adjustment, 1981 – 2000.” International Studies Quarterly 50(2): 233-262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abouharb, M. Rodwan, and David L. Cingranelli. 2007. Human Rights and Structural Adjustment. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Achen, Christopher, 2000. “Why Lagged Dependent Variables Can Suppress the Explanatory Power of Other Independent Variables”. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Political Methodology Section of the American Political Science Association, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 20–22 July.Google Scholar
  4. Arieff, Alexis. 2012. “Political Transition in Tunisia.” RS21666 Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service.Google Scholar
  5. Cingranelli, David L. and David L. Richards. 1999. “Measuring the Level, Pattern, and Sequence of Government Respect for Physical Integrity Rights.” International Studies Quarterly 43(2): 407-417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cingranelli, David L. and David L. Richards. 2008. The Cingranelli-Richards (CIRI) Human Rights Data Project Coding Manual. Version 2008.7.30. <http://ciri.binghamton.edu/documentation/ciri_coding_guide.pdf>. Accessed Octorber 12, 2012.
  7. Cingranelli, David L., and David L. Richards. 2010. The Cingranelli-Richards (CIRI) Human Rights Dataset. Version 2010.8.15. <http://www.humanrightsdata.org>. Accessed Octorber 12, 2012.
  8. CNN Wire Staff. 2012. “Egypt lifts unpopular emergency law.” June 2. http://www.cnn.com/2012/05/31/world/africa/egypt-emergency-law/index.html. Accessed October 12, 2012.
  9. Davenport, Christian. 1996. “’Constitutional Promises’ and Repressive Reality: A Cross-National Time-Series Investigation of Why Political and Civil Liberties are Suppressed.” The Journal of Politics 58(3): 627-654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Davenport, Christian, and David A. Armstrong. 2004. “Democracy and the Violation of Human Rights: A Statistical Analysis from 1976 to 1996”. American Journal of Political Science 48.3: 538-554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Erakat, Noura. 2011. “Emergency Laws, the Arab Spring, and the Struggle Against ‘Human Rights’.” Jadaliyya <http://www.jadaliyya.com/pages/index/2051/emergency-laws-the-arab-spring-and-the-struggle-ag> Last Accessed October 12, 2012.
  12. Fein, Helen. 1995. “More Murder in the Middle: Life-Integrity Violations and Democracy in the World.” Human Rights Quarterly 17.1: 170-191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fitzpatrick, Joan. 1994. Human Rights In Crisis: The International System for Protecting Rights During States of Emergency. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  14. Gleditsch, Nils Petter, Peter Wallensteen, Mikael Eriksson, Margareta Sollenberg, Håvard Strand. 2002. “Armed Conflict 1946-2001: A New Dataset.” Journal of Peace Research 39(5): 615-637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Guzman, Andrew T. 2005-2006. “Saving Customary International Law.” Michigan Journal of International Law 27: 115 – 176.Google Scholar
  16. Hafner-Burton, Emilie M., and Kiyoteru Tsutsui. 2005. “Human Rights in a Globalizing World: The Paradox of Empty Promises.” American Journal of Sociology 110(5): 1373-1411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hafner-Burton, Emilie M. and Kiyoteru Tsutsui. 2007. “Justice Lost! The Failure of International Human Rights Law to Matter Where Needed Most.” Journal of Peace Research 44.4: 407 – 425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hafner-Burton, Emilie M., Laurence R. Helfer, and Christopher J. Fariss. 2011. “Emergency and Escape: Explaining Derogations from Human Rights Treaties.” International Organization 65: 672-707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hathaway, Oona. 2002. “Do Human Rights Treaties Make A Difference?” The Yale Law Journal 111(8): 1935-2042.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Henderson, Conway. 1993. “Population Pressures and Political Repression.” Social Science Quarterly 74(2): 322-333.Google Scholar
  21. Henkin, Louis, Gerald L. Neuman, Diane F. Orentlicher, and David W. Leebron. 1999. Human Rights. New York: Foundation Press.Google Scholar
  22. Heston, Alan, Robert Summers, and Bettina Aten. 2006. Penn World Table Version 6.2. Center for International Comparisons of Production: Income and Prices at the University of Pennsylvania. http://pwt.econ.upenn.edu/php_site/pwt_index.php> Last Accessed October 12, 2012.
  23. Ignatieff, Michael. 2001. “Human Rights as Politics and Idolatry.” In Amy Gutmann, ed., Human Rights as Politics and Idolatry. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Keith, Linda Camp. 1999. “The United Nations International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights: Does It Make a Difference in Human Rights Behavior?” Journal of Peace Research 36.1: 95 – 118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Keith, Linda Camp. 2002. “Constitutional Provisions for Individual Human Rights (1977-1996): Are They More Than Mere ‘Window Dressing?’” Political Research Quarterly 55(1): 111-143.Google Scholar
  26. Keith, Linda Camp and Steven C. Poe. 2004. “Are Constitutional State of Emergency Clauses Effective? An Empirical Exploration.” Human Rights Quarterly 26(4): 1071-1097.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Landman, Todd. 2005. Protecting Human Rights: A Comparative Study. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Liivoja, Rain. 2008. “The Scope of the Supremacy Clause of the United Nations Charter.” International & Comparative Law Quarterly 57: 583 – 612.Google Scholar
  29. Lillich, Richard B. 1985. “The Paris Minimum Standards of Human Rights Norms in a State of Emergency.” The American Journal of International Law 79(4): 1072 – 1081.Google Scholar
  30. Livingstone, Stephen. 2002. “International Law relating to States of Emergency and Derogations from International Human Rights Law Treaties.” Paper presented at the Nepal National Workshop for Lawyers on the Legal Protection of Human Rights II: Litigating Human Rights during a State of Emergency, Dhulikhel, Nepal, September 27 – 29. http://www.interights.org/doc/Livingstone_derogation_final.doc> Last Accessed October 12, 2012.
  31. Macken, Claire. 2005. “Terrorism as a State of Emergency in International Law.” Paper presented at the ANZSIL 2005 Conference, Canberra, Australia, June 16-18. <http://law.anu.edu.au/cipl/Conferences&SawerLecture/05%20ANZSIL%20Papers/Macken.pdf> Last Accessed October 12, 2012.
  32. Marshall, Monty G., and Keith Jaggers. 2005. “Polity IV Project: Dataset Users’ Manual.” <http://www.cidcm.umd.edu/polity/datap4manualv2004.pdf/>. Last accessed May 27, 2007.
  33. McCormick, James, and Neil Mitchell. 1988. “Is U.S. Aid Really Linked to Human Rights in Latin America?” American Journal of Political Science 32(1): 231-239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Monty G. Marshall and Keith Jaggers. 2006. Polity Data Set. Version p4v2006. College Park, MD: Center for International Development and Conflict Management, University of Maryland. < http://www.cidcm.umd.edu/polity/>. Last accessed May 27, 2007.
  35. Neumayer, Eric. 2005. “Do International Human Rights Treaties Improve Respect for Human Rights?” Journal of Conflict Resolution 49.6: 925 – 953.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Neumayer, Eric. 2007. “Qualified Ratification: Explaining Reservations to International Human Rights Treaties.” The Journal of Legal Studies 36.2: 397 – 429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Neumayer, Eric. 2012. “Do Governments Mean Business When They Derogate? Human Rights Violations During Notified States of Emergency.” Review of International Organizations DOI  10.1007/s1158-012-9144-y
  38. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights and International Bar Association. 2003. Human Rights In The Administration Of Justice: A Manual on Human Rights for Judges, Prosecutors and Lawyers. New York: United Nations.Google Scholar
  39. Paternoster, Raymond, Robert Brame, Paul Mazerolle, and Alex Piquero. 1998. “Using the Correct Statistical Test for the Equality of Regression Coefficients.” Criminology 36 (4): 859-866.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Poe, Steven C. and C. Neal Tate. 1994 "Repression of Rights to Personal Integrity in the 1980s: A Global Analysis." American Political Science Review 88(4): 853-72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Poe, Steven C., C. Neal Tate, and Linda Camp Keith. 1999. "Repression of the Human Right to Personal Integrity Revisited: A Global Cross-National Study Covering the Years 1976-1993." International Studies Quarterly 43(2): 291-313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Poe, Steven C., Sabine C. Carey and Tanya C. Vazquez. 2001. “How Are These Pictures Different? A Quantitative Comparison of the US State Department and Amnesty International Human Rights Reports, 1976–1995.” Human Rights Quarterly 23(3): 650 – 677.Google Scholar
  43. Regan, Patrick M., and Errol A. Henderson. 2002. “Democracy, threats and political repression in developing countries: are democracies internally less violent?” Third World Quarterly 23(1): 119-136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Simmons, Beth A. 2009. Mobilizing for Human Rights: International Law in Domestic Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Strand, Håvard, Joachim Carlsen, Nils Petter Gleditsch, Håvard Hegre, Christin Ormhaug & Lars Wilhelmsen. 2005. “Armed Conflict Dataset Codebook, Version 3-2005.” <http://new.prio.no/upload/datasets/ac3-2006b/Codebook_v3-2005.pdf>. Last accessed May 27, 2007.
  46. United States Department of State. Annual. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices.< http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/> and <http://www.state.gov/www/global/human_rights/hrp_reports_mainhp.html>. Accessed Octorber 12, 2012.
  47. von Bernstorff, Jochen. 2008. “The Changing Fortunes of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: Genesis and Symbolic Dimensions of the Turn to Rights in International Law.” The European Journal of International Law 19.5: 903-924.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. von Stein, Jana. 2005. “Do Treaties Constrain or Screen? Selection Bias and Treaty Compliance.” American Political Science Review 99.4: 611 – 622.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Political Science and Human Rights InstituteThe University of ConnecticutMansfieldUSA
  2. 2.Department of International AffairsUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA

Personalised recommendations