East Asia

, Volume 18, Issue 3, pp 36–48 | Cite as

The Nanjing Massacre: The socio-psychological effects

  • Zhang Lianhong


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Harold John Timperley, Qinhua Rijun baoxing lu (Japanese Terror in China), translated by Ma Guangping, Wan Gaochao, et al. (New China Press, 1986), p. 111.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    See Nanjing newspaper, Xinminbao (The New Citizen), 29 August 1937, p. 2.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Nanjing shizhengfu junshiweiyuanhui houfang qinwubu han (Letter from the Interior Affairs Department of the Military Affairs Committee, Nanjing Muncipal Government)” dated 23 November 1937. Nanjing Muncipal Archives.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Riben diguozhuyi qinhua dangan ziliao xuanbian: Nanjing datusha (Selected Documents from Documents on the Japanese Imperialist Invasion of China: Nanjing Massacre) (China Press, 1995), p. 14.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tao Jinghuan, “Shoudu kongxizhong de xingxingshishi (Nanjing under the Air Raids),” in the Nanjing newspaper, Xinbao, 19 October 1997.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hu Hualing, Jinling yongsheng: Wei Telin nushizhuan (The Biography of Minnie Vautrin). (Taiwan Jiuge, 1997), p. 79.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Xu Ziling, “Nanjing zai kongxi xia (Nanjing under the Air Raids),” Xinbao, 19 October 1937.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Women gangtieban de guodu (Our Steel-like Capital City),” Shishi Semi-monthly, Vol. 1, no. 3.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Labei rije (Rabe's Diary) (Jiangsu People's Publishing House, 1997), p, 165, 170.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    M.S. Bates, Tianli nanrong—Meiguo chuanjiaoshi yanzhong de Nanjing de datusha (The Nanjing Massacre seen from the Eyes of an American Missionary). Translated by Zhang Kairuan (Nanjing University Press, 1995), p. 5.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Qin-Hua Rijun Nanjing datusha shiliao (Historical Records on the Nanjing Massacre by the Invading Japanese Troops) (Jiangsu Antiquities Press, 1985).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Interviewed by the author and Wu Xiaojing on 31 December 1998.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Historical Records, p. 12.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nanjing datusha yu sanguan zuozhan (The Nanjing Massacre and the Three-All Tactics) (Sichuan Educational Press, 1984).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    In the interviews by the author, the survivors explained that, to this day, they could not understand why they were so cowardly.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    In the interviews, many of the survivors mentioned the sound of the Japanese soldiers' boots, especially the women who trembled as soon as they heard the sound of the boots.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Xu Zhigeng, Nanjing datusha (The Nanjing Massacre) (The Liberation Army Press, 1998), p. 217.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Historical Records, p. 83.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bates, American Missionary, p. 458.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wei Telin riji (Minnie Vautrin's Diaries)” for 20 January 1938. Xerox copy.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    “Vautrin's Diaries,” 17 February 1938.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rabe's letter to his wife quoted in Bates, American Missionary, p. 32.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lewis C.S. Smyth quoted in Historical Records (1985).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Document 1002-2-928 in Nanjing Muncipal Archives.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zhang Kairuan, Nanjing datusha de lishi jianzheng (Historical Evidence for the Nanjing Massacre) (Hubei People's Press, 1995), 132–133.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zhang, Historical Evidence, p. 224.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    “Vautrin's Diaries,” 29 January 1940.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    “Rosen's Report to the German Ministry of Foreign Affairs,” 20 Jan. 1938 quoted in Kang-Ri zhanzheng yanjiu (Studies on the Sino-Japanese War), no. 2(1991).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Zhang, Historical Evidence, p. 155.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hu, Biography of Minnie Vautrin, pp. 180–181.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Nanjing edition of the Xinhua ribao (New China Daily News), 23 January 1999.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Author's interview on 20 September 1999.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Recently on 15 November 1999 there was the case of a Japanese tourist who forced a Chinese female manager to kneel on the floor. Public indignation was aroused throughout Hubei province. Within one day the local paper received more than 300 phone calls. Throughout the nation more than fifty newspapers reported the story in great detail. See Xinhua ribao (New China Daily News), 19 November 1999.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Transaction Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhang Lianhong

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations