Acta Analytica

, Volume 28, Issue 2, pp 229–235 | Cite as

Wisdom Beyond Rationality: A Reply to Ryan



We discuss Sharon Ryan’s Deep Rationality Theory of wisdom, defended recently in her “Wisdom, Knowledge and Rationality.” We argue that (a) Ryan’s use of the term “rationality” needs further elaboration; (b) there is a problem with requiring that the wise person possesses justified beliefs but not necessarily knowledge; (c) the conditions of DRT are not all necessary; (d) the conditions are not sufficient. At the end of our discussion, we suggest that there may be a problem with the very assumption that an informative, non-circular set of necessary and sufficient conditions of wisdom can be given.


Wisdom Rationality Judgment Value conflicts Virtue 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Charles Koch Fellow and Faculty Fellow of the Parr Center for EthicsUniversity of North Carolina, Chapel HillChapel HillUSA
  2. 2.Visiting ScholarUniversity of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA

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