Geography of the Midwestern Multilingual Student: the Possibility of Upward Mobility
Immigrants to the USA continue to grow more diverse by country of origin, and in location of settlement. Newcomers often settle in concentrated patterns, and questions remain about the ability of schools to provide the academic, language, and social resources these students may need for integration into American society. Many school districts in the Midwestern United States have seen an increase in the diversity of children from multilingual backgrounds as the result of immigrant and refugee settlement. Since immigrant groups settle within enclaves, there may be factors relating immigrant language background, school district quality, and upward mobility that are spatially correlated. This article uses geographic weighted regression (GWR) to examine the spatial relationship between multilingual students and indicators of opportunity structure in the St. Louis, Missouri metropolitan region. St. Louis was chosen because of its rich history of European immigration, Bosnian refugee resettlement, and intense racial segregation. Results suggest that multilingual students in the St. Louis metropolitan region are spatially concentrated, but only certain language groups are located within school districts that provide resources for possible integration and upward mobility. This analysis demonstrates the importance of examining the local context of settlement for multilingual students and the opportunity structure available to them through their school district.
KeywordsContext of reception Geographic weighted regression (GWR) Immigration Newcomers Racial segregation
The author would like to thank Professor William F. Tate, IV and Dr. Mark Hogrebe for their support during the development of this manuscript.
- Bayless School District. (2014). District Strategic Plan: 2014-2019. Retrieved on July 6, 2017 from http://www.baylessk12.org/uploads/1/7/8/4/17842725/bayless_csip-strategic_plan_2014-2019_6-24-14.pdf
- Bayless School District. (2017). Retrieved from http://www.baylessk12.org/.
- Bean, F. D., Brown, S. K., & Bachmeier, J. D. (2015). Parents without papers. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
- Castañeda v. Pickard. (1981). 648 F. 2d 989 Retrieved from https://openjurist.org/648/f2d/989
- Chetty, R., Hendren, N., Kline, P., & Saez, E. (2014). Where is the land of opportunity? Geography of intergenerational mobility in the U.S. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 19843. Retrieved on October 12, 2015 from www.nber.org/papers/w19843.
- Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2003). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Cohn, D. (2015). Future immigration will change the face of America by 2065. Pew Research Center. October 5, 2015. From http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/10/05/future-immigration-will-change-the-face-of-america-by-2065/ on May 26, 2017.
- Fotheringham, A. S., Brunsdon, C., & Charlton, M. (2002). Geographically weighted regression: the analysis of spatially varying relationships. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc..Google Scholar
- Frey, W.H. (2017). Where immigrant growth matters most. The Brookings Institution. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/
- Galster, G. C., Metzer, K., & Waite, R. (1999). Neighborhood opportunity structures and immigrants’ socioeconomic advancement. Journal of Housing Research, 10, 95–127.Google Scholar
- Gándara, P., & Orfield, G. (2010). A return to the “Mexican room”: The segregation of Arizona’s English learners. Los Angeles, CA: UCLA Civil Rights Project Retrieved from: https://www.civilrightsproject.ucla.edu/research/k-12-education/language-minority-students/a-return-to-the-mexican-roomthe-segregation-of-arizonas-english-learners-1.Google Scholar
- Hamdan, L. (2018). 450 refugees are expected to resettle in St. Louis this year, compared to more than 1,100 in 2016. St. Louis Public Radio. Retrieved from http://news.stlpublicradio.org/post/450-refugees-are-expected-resettle-st-louis-year-compared-more-1100-2016#stream/0
- Hogrebe, M.C. (2012). Adding geospatial perspective to research on schools, communities, and neighbors in W.F. Tate (Ed.), Research on Schools, Neighborhoods, and Communities (pp. 151–169). New York, NY: Roman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.Google Scholar
- International Institute of St. Louis. (2017). Retrieved from https://www.iistl.org/.
- Kasinitz, P., Mollenkopf, J. H., Waters, M. C., & Holdaway, J. (2008). Inheriting the City: the children of immigrants come of age. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
- Lee, J., & Bean, F. D. (2010). The Diversity Paradox: immigration and the color line in 21st Century America. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
- Lee, J., & Zhou, M. (2015). The Asian American Achievement Paradox. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
- Liddell v. Board of Education, 491 F. Supp. 351 (E.D. Mo. 1980).Google Scholar
- Liddell v. Board of Education, 567 F. Supp. 1037 (E.D. Mo. 1983).Google Scholar
- Liddell v. Board of Education, No. 4:72CV100 SNL (E.D. Mo. 1999) [Memorandum and Order].Google Scholar
- Marrow, H. B. (2011). New Destination Dreaming: Immigration, Race, and Legal Status in the Rural American South. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
- Massey, D. S. (2008). New faces in new places: the changing demography of American Immigration. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
- Massey, D.S. (2013). Immigration enforcement as a race-making institution in D. Card & S. Raphael (Eds.), Immigration, poverty, and socioeconomic inequality (pp. 357–381). New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
- Mitchell, A. (2009). The Esri Guide to GIS Analysis; Volume 2: Spatial Measurements & Statistics. Redlands, CA: ESRI Press.Google Scholar
- Moore, D. (2012). A taste of Asia on Olive. St. Louis Post Dispatch. Retrieved from http://www.stltoday.com
- Moore, D. (2017, January 26). Halting refugee resettlement program ‘a terrible idea,’ says prof who served in Obama administration. St. Louis Post Dispatch. Retrieved from http://www.stltoday.com
- Mormino, G. R. (2002). Immigrants on the Hill: Italian-Americans in St. Louis, 1882–1982. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press.Google Scholar
- Portes, A., & Rumbaut, R. (2014). Immigrant America: A Portrait (4th ed.). Oakland, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
- Rodríguez, D., Carrasquillo, A., & Lee, K.S. (2014). The bilingual advantage: promoting academic development, biliteracy, and native language in the classroom. New York,NY: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
- Samson, J. F., & Lesaux, N. K. (2015). Disadvantaged language minority students and their teachers: A national picture. Teachers College Record, 117(2), 1–26.Google Scholar
- Santos, M., Darling-Hammond, L. & Cheuk, T. (2012). Teacher development to support English language learners in the context of Common Core State Standards. Understanding Language: Language, Literacy, and Learning in the Content Areas. From http://achieve.lausd.net/cms/lib08/CA01000043/Centricity/Domain/173/TeacherPDforELLsCCSS_Santos_Darling-Hammond_Cheuk.pdf
- Schultz, L. (2014). Inequitable Dispersion: Mapping the Distribution of Highly Qualified Teachers in St. Louis Metropolitan Elementary Schools. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 22(90), 1–24.Google Scholar
- Spees, L. P., Potochnick, S., & Perreira, K. M. (2016). The academic achievement of Limited English Proficient (LEP) youth in new and established immigrant states: lessons from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Education Policy Analysis Archives, 24(99), 1–31.Google Scholar
- St. Louis Mosiac Project. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.stlmosaicproject.org/.
- Taketa, K. (2017a, February 5). International students find refuge, opportunity in Ritenour’s English school. Louis Post-Dispatch: The St Retrieved from http://www.stltoday.com.
- Taketa, K. (2017b). Normandy gets good news—and provisional accreditation. The St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Retrieved from http://www.stltoday.com
- Telles, E. E., & Ortiz, V. (2008). Generations of Exclusion. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
- Turner v. School District of Clayton, 318 S.W. 3d 660 (2010).Google Scholar
- Tyack, D. (1974). The one best system: A history of American urban education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- U.S. Census Bureau/American FactFinder. (2013a). “B09005: Household Type for Children Under 18 Years in Households (Excluding Householders, Spouses, and Unmarried Partners).” 2008–2013 American Community Survey. U.S. Bureau’s American Community Survey Office, 2013. Web. 19 August 2015. http://factfinder2.census.gov
- U.S. Census Bureau/American FactFinder. (2013b) “B16001: Language Spoken at Home by Ability to Speak English for the Population 5 Years and Over.” 2008–2013 American Community Survey. U.S. Bureau’s American Community Survey Office, 2013. Web. 19 August 2015. http://factfinder2.census.gov
- U.S. Census Bureau/American FactFinder. (2013c). “B19013: Median Household Income in the Past 12 Months (In 2013 Inflation-Adjusted Dollars.” 2008–2013 American Community Survey. U.S. Bureau’s American Community Survey Office, 2013. Web. 19 August 2015. http://factfinder2.census.gov
- U.S. Census Bureau/American FactFinder. (2013d). “B19083: Gini Index of Income Inequality.” 2008–2013 American Community Survey. U.S. Bureau’s American Community Survey Office, 2013. Web. 19 August 2015. http://factfinder2.census.gov
- Umansky, I., Hopkins, M., Dabach, D. B., Porter, L., Thompson, K., & Pompa, D. (2018). Understanding and supporting the educational needs of recently arrived immigrant English learner students: lessons for state and local education agencies. Washington, DC: Council of Chief State School Officers.Google Scholar
- Vandeven, M. (2015a). Educating linguistically diverse students: requirements & practices. In Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education Retrieved July 7, 2017 from https://dese.mo.gov/sites/default/files/qs-ell-Educating-Ling-Diverse-Stu-2015.pdf.Google Scholar
- Vandeven, M. (2015b). Educating linguistically diverse students: requirements & practices. In Missouri Department of Elementary & Secondary Education Retrieved from https://dese.mo.gov/sites/default/files/qs-ell-Educating-Ling-Diverse-Stu-2015.pdf.Google Scholar
- Waters, M. C. (1990). Ethnic options: choosing identities in America. Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
- Wells, A. S., & Crain, R. L. (1997). Stepping over the Color Line: African-American Students in White Suburban Schools. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
- Zhou, M., & Li, X. Y. (2003). Ethnic language schools and the development of supplementary education in the immigrant Chinese community in the United States. Innovative Practices for Leadership Learning, 2003(100), 57–73.Google Scholar