Advertisement

Analyzing the Effect of Remittance Transfer on Socioeconomic Well-Being of Left-Behind Parents: a Study of Pakistan and Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK)

  • Septi AriadiEmail author
  • Muhammad Saud
  • Asia Ashfaq
Article
  • 148 Downloads

Abstract

International migration is a sociopolitical and economic prodigy. Pakistan, being the 10th in ranking in the world and 2nd in South Asia, is among the largest recipient of remittances. However, a significant research gaps exist between the remittances and its social impacts. This study has tried to analyze the impact of remittances sent by adult male children on the well-being of left-behind parents. Well-being of left-behind parents was operationalized through two indicators as financial security and health-care facilities. For this purpose, quantitative research design was employed, and a survey was conducted in three cities, i.e., Gujrat, Jhelum, and Mirpur. The data was collected from 94 respondents chosen purposively on the basis of certain characteristics including demographic profile of the respondents and their male children who must be living abroad. The findings of the study revealed that parents were getting money from their sons regularly. Parents were getting financial assistance from their children for managing their household expenditures and visiting good hospitals and specialist doctors in case of illness. Lastly, the study concluded that the economic aspect of migration of male children has a significant impact on the health status of left-behind parents with the value of correlation (r) = 0.241 and level of significance as 0.019. The research study also gives some suggestions and provides future directions for research.

Keywords

International migration Left-behind parents Pakistan Remittances Well-being 

References

  1. Adhikari, R., Jampaklay, A., & Chamratrithirong, A. (2011). Impact of children’s migration on health and health care-seeking behavior of elderly left behind. BMC Public Health, 11(1), 143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arif, G. M., Irfan, M., & Cohen, S. I. (1997). Population mobility across the Pakistani border: fifty years experience [with comments]. The Pakistan Development Review, 36, 989–1009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barham, B., & Boucher, S. (1998). Migration, remittances, and inequality: estimating the net effects of migration on income distribution. Journal of Development Economics, 55(2), 307–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bauer, T. and Gang, I. N. (1998). Temporary migrants from Egypt: how long do they stay abroad? Centre for Economic Policy Research.Google Scholar
  5. Bushra, Y. (1983). A sociological study on emigrant’s families in Faisalabad. (PhD. Dissertation. Department of Rural Sociology. University of Agriculture, Faisalabad).Google Scholar
  6. Byrne, D., Goeree, M. S., Hiedemann, B., & Stern, S. (2009). Formal home health care, informal care, and family decision making*. International Economic Review, 50(4), 1205–1242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cameron, L. A., & Cobb-Clark, D. (2008). Do co residency and financial transfers from the children reduce the need for elderly parents to works in developing countries? Journal of Population Economics, 21(4), 1007–1033.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Datta, P. (2004). Push-pull factors of undocumented migration from Bangladesh to West Bengal: a perception study. The Qualitative Report, 9(2), 335–358.Google Scholar
  9. Government of Pakistan. (2013-14). Economic survey of Pakistan, Economic Advisor Wing, Finance Division, Islamabad.Google Scholar
  10. Hamann, V. (2007). The impact of international migration on regional development. Germany: Kassel University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Knodel, J., & Saengtienchai, C. (2007). Rural parents with urban children: social and economic implications of migration for the rural elderly in Thailand. Population, Space and Place, 13(3), 193–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lucas, R., & Stark, O. (1985). Motivations to remit: evidence from Botswana. The Journal of Political Economy, 93, 901–918.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Massey, D. S. (2004). Social and economic aspects of immigration. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1038(1), 206–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mehmood, S., Khan, A. A., Shahbaz, B., & Akhtar, S. (2010). Role of international migration in agricultural development and farmers’ livelihoods: a case study of an agrarian community. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 47(3), 297–301.Google Scholar
  15. Rapoport, H. and Docquier, F. (2005) The economics of migrants’ remittances in L.-A. Gerard-Varet, S-C Kolm and J. Mercier (Eds) Handbook of the economics of reciprocity, giving and altruism, forthcoming (Amsterdam: North Holland).Google Scholar
  16. Sattar, H. (2009). International migration and its impact on socio-economic development in rural households in T.T. Singh. M.Sc. Thesis, Dept. of Rural Sociology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.Google Scholar
  17. Solimano, A. (2002). Globalizing talent and human capital: implications for developing countries (Vol. 15). United Nations Publications.Google Scholar
  18. State Bank of Pakistan, (2009). ‘Home remittances’, Statistics and Data Warehouse Department, State Bank of Pakistan.Google Scholar
  19. Tiemoko R., (2003). Summary report for working group B, workshop on approaches to data collection and data Management. Geneva.Google Scholar
  20. World Bank. (2006). Global economic prospects: economic implications of remittances and migration. Washington D.C.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sociology DepartmentFaculty of Social and Political Sciences, Airlangga UniversitySurabayaIndonesia
  2. 2.Faculty of Social and Political ScienceUniversitas AirlanggaSurabayaIndonesia
  3. 3.Department of Humanities and Social SciencesBahria UniversityIslamabadPakistan

Personalised recommendations