Impacts of Vocational Training for Socio-economic Development of Afghan Refugees in Labor Markets of Host Societies in Baluchistan

  • Aziz AhmedEmail author


Afghan refugees have been living for 35 years, since the start of the imposed war on Afghanistan in 1979, in host societies of Baluchistan and other parts of Pakistan. Repatriation has been started, yet no study has been conducted to explore their labor market skill acquisition for impacting their socio-economic status in the host communities. This paper examines vocational training of Afghan refugees impacting upon their socio-economics of earnings, employability, labor market-evolved perceptions about livelihood earnings, discrimination, and working aptitude in local markets of selected districts of Baluchistan. Field survey from a sample of 157 vocationally trained individuals has been conducted through a full-fledged questionnaire by using two-stage stratified sampling techniques to produce the first ever labor market data for Afghan refugees. Descriptive analysis shows cascading impacts of vocational training for socio-economic development of Afghan refugees. The findings of frequency distribution highlight that vocational skills have positive impacts upon earnings, employment status, and working aptitudes. The results also show discrimination, constraints in earnings and employability, career counseling, lower educational level, and tough competition for Afghan refugees for getting socio-economic benefits in the labor markets of host communities. The findings may be helpful for giving insights to policy formulation and recommendations for Afghans’ repatriation program to Afghanistan and recent waves of immigrants and refugee influx and accommodations faced by South Asian and European countries these days.


Afghan refugees Labor markets Socio-economic development Vocational training 



The supportive assistance of the International Center for Refugee and Migration Studies (ICRMS) established at BUIT Quetta is acknowledged for this study.


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© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Economics, Quaid-i-Azam UniversityIslamabadPakistan
  2. 2.BUITEMSQuettaPakistan

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