Barriers and Facilitators to Professional Licensure and Certification Testing in Canada: Perspectives of Internationally Educated Professionals
- 604 Downloads
Testing is an essential component of professional licensure and certification, which serves as a powerful decision-making tool to include or exclude internationally educated professionals from their respective professions in Canada. This study examines the role that testing plays in professional licensure and certification from the perspectives of newly arrived internationally educated professionals (IEPs) in four professions: teachers, engineers, nurses, and medical doctors. The study was conducted in Kingston and Windsor, ON, Canada. Data were collected through face to face interviews. The findings indicate both internal and external factors are associated with the testing process which impact whether IEPs can continue to practice and can contribute to Canada’s long-term social and economic goals.
KeywordsNewcomers Certification Ontario Licensure Testing Internationally educated professionals (IEPs)
The authors gratefully acknowledge the research funding support from CERIS—The Ontario Metropolis Centre. We are grateful to the many IEPs who took the time and effort to share with us their lived experiences of certification testing in Ontario, Canada.
- Baerlocher, M. O. (2006). The importance of foreign-trained physicians to Canada. Clinical and Investigative Medicine, 29, 151–153.Google Scholar
- Basavarajappa, K., & Verma, R. (1990). Occupational composition of immigrant women. In S. S. Halli, F. Trovato, & L. Driedger (Eds.), Ethnic demography, Canadian immigrant, racial and cultural variations (pp (pp. 297–3113). Ottawa: Carleton University Press.Google Scholar
- Basran, G. S., & Zong, L. (1998). Devaluation of foreign credentials as perceived by visible minority professional immigrants. Canadian Ethnic Studies, 3, 6–23.Google Scholar
- Bloom, M., & Grant, M. (2001). Brain gain: the economic benefits of recognizing learning and learning credentials in Canada. Ottawa, ON: Conference Board of Canada.Google Scholar
- Brophy, J. (2004). Motivating students to learn. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbum.Google Scholar
- CAPE (n.d.) Can I become a licensed engineers in Canada? http://www.capeinfo.ca/eng_in_canada.php#how_peng_gov. Accessed 10 Jan 2010.
- Cheng, L., Myles, J., & Wang, H. (2004). Understanding the challenges new immigrants have in their teaching practicum: perceptions of associate teachers. In D. Zinga (Ed.), Perspectives on multiculturalism (pp. 101–110). Hamilton, Ontario: Zing Media Inc.Google Scholar
- Grant, H., & Sweetman, A. (2004). Introduction to economic and urban issues in Canadian immigration policy. Canadian Journal of Urban Research, 13, 1–24.Google Scholar
- Immigration and Citizenship Canada (2008). Immigration overview: permanent residents—Permanent residents by labour market intention and occupational skill level. http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/statistics/facts2008/permanent/22.asp. Accessed 10 Jan 2010
- Jeans, M. E., Hardley, F., Green, J., & Da Prat, C. (2005). Navigating to become a nurse in Canada—assessment of international nurse applicants. Ottawa, ON.: Canadian Nurses Association.Google Scholar
- McMillan, J., & Schumacher, S. (2006). Research in education: evidence-based inquiry. Boston: Pearson Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
- O’Meara, D. (2004). Foreign-trained physicians need residency spots. Journal of Canadian Medical Association, 170, 8.Google Scholar
- Shohamy, E., & McNamara, T. (2009). Language tests for citizenship, immigration, and asylum language assessment quarterly. An International Journal, 6(1), 1–5.Google Scholar
- Zhang, L., & Cheng, L. (2006). Challenges and opportunities: the experience of foreign-trained immigrant teachers in their teaching practicum in Ontario elementary schools. In D. Zinga (Ed.), Navigating multiculturalism negotiating change (pp. 170–190). Newcastle, UK: Cambridge Scholars Press.Google Scholar