Licensure of Internationally Educated Nurses Seeking Professional Careers in the Province of Alberta in Canada
- 348 Downloads
While the regulation of nursing practice through licensure ensures that nurses meet minimum standards for safe competent and ethical care, it also inhibits integration of immigrant internationally educated nurses (IENs) into the Canadian professional labour market. With projections of significant nurse workforce shortages by 2010, there is impetus to enhance the numbers of licensed professional nurses through multiple strategies. The licensure processes and accompanying tensions in the Canadian context are described. As professional nurse licensure in Canada is a provincial responsibility, the situation in the Province of Alberta is used as an example. Suggestions for policy development and research include needs for better data and for gender-based analysis to address barriers to IEN licensure. The ability to practice in one’s chosen profession can be a major factor in integration of immigrants into Canadian society and thus a powerful factor in attraction and retention of highly skilled immigrants.
KeywordsInternationally educated nurses Nurse licensure Nurse immigration Canada
Alors que la réglementation, par le permis d’exercice, de la pratique des soins infirmiers assure que les infirmières répondent aux normes assurant des soins sans risques, compétents et éthiques, elle a aussi comme effet de limiter l’intégration des infirmières formées à l’étranger au marché du travail intellectuel canadien. Les projections selon lesquelles le marché du travail connaîtra des pénuries importantes d’ici 2010 constituent une incitation à adopter diverses stratégies visant à augmenter le nombre d’infirmières professionnelles autorisées. Nous décrivons les processus d’octroi de permis d’exercice et les tensions qui les accompagnent dans le contexte canadien. L’octroi des permis d’exercice aux infirmières au Canada relevant de compétence provinciale, nous avons choisi une province, l’Alberta, comme exemple. Nous offrons des suggestions en matière d’élaboration des politiques et de recherche; nous soulevons, entre autres, le besoin de meilleures données et d’une analyse différenciée selon les sexes pour aborder les obstacles à l’octroi de permis d’exercice aux infirmières formées à l’étranger. Pour les immigrants, la capacité de pratiquer la profession de son choix peut constituer un facteur d’intégration important à la société canadienne et donc un atout puissant pour attirer et maintenir en poste des immigrants hautement qualifiés.
Mots clésInfirmières formées à l’étranger Octroi de permis d’exercice aux infirmières Immigration des infirmières Canada
- Alberta Network of Immigrant Women [ANIW] (2002). Access to licensure for internationally educated nurses. Follow-up study. Calgary, AB: ANIW.Google Scholar
- Alberta Network of Immigrant Women [ANIW] (2005). Access to licensure for internationally educated nurses. Follow-up study. Calgary, AB: Brenda J. Simpson.Google Scholar
- Bloom, M., & Grant, M. (2001). Brain gain: The economic benefits of recognizing learning and learning credentials in Canada. Ottawa, ON: Conference Board of Canada.Google Scholar
- Bourgeault, I. L. (2007). Brain drain, brain waste: Programs aimed at integrating and retaining the best and the brightest in health care. Canadian Issues, Spring, 96–99.Google Scholar
- Canadian Nurses Association [CNA]. (2005a). Position statement: Regulation and integration of international nurse applicants into the Canadian health system. Retrieved December 18, 2005, from: http://www.cna-aiic.ca/CNA/documents/pdf/publications/PS79_Regulation_e.pdf
- CNA. (2005b). Canadian nurse registration examination (CNRE). Retrieved April 16, 2006 from: http://www.cna-nurses.ca/.
- CNA. (2006a). Become a Registered Nurse. Retrieved April 18, 2006 from: http://www.cna-nurses.ca/CNA/nursing/becoming/international/default_e.aspx.
- CNA. (2006b). Nursing in Canada: Canadian Registered Nurse Examination. Retrieved November 15, 2006, from: http://www.cna-nurses.ca/CNA/nursing/rnexam/preptools/learn/default_e.aspx.
- Capital region importing 250 nurses. (2000, September 28). Edmonton Journal, p. B1.Google Scholar
- CARE. (2006). CARE Centre for Internationally Educated Nurses: Creating access to regulated employment. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from: http://www.care4nurses.org/about.
- CBC. (2006). Ontario moves to boost recognition of foreign credentials. (November 9, 2006). Retrieved November 14, 2006, from: http://www.cbc.ca/news/story/2006/11/09/foreign-bill.html.
- CCLB (2003). The development of CELBAN (The Canadian English language benchmark assessment for nurses): A nursing-specific language assessment tool. Ottawa: CCLB Retrieved November 14, 2006, from: www.language.ca.Google Scholar
- CCLB (2004). Phase III: Implementation of CELBAN: Final report. Ottawa: CCLB Retrieved November 14, 2006, from: www.language.ca.Google Scholar
- Cesa, F., & Larente, S. (2004). Work force shortages: A question of supply and demand. In Health Canada. Health Policy Research, 8, 12–17.Google Scholar
- Centre for Canadian Language Benchmarks [CCLB] (2002). Benchmarking the English language demands of the nursing profession across Canada. Ottawa: CCLB Retrieved November 14, 2006, from: www.language.ca.Google Scholar
- Citizenship and Immigration Canada [CIC] (2006a). Annual report to Parliament on immigration, 2006. Ottawa: CIC.Google Scholar
- CIC. (2006b). Monitor – Fourth quarter data 2005. (2009, Issue 2). Retrieved November 6, 2006, from: http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/monitor/pdf/issue-13e.pdf.
- College and Association of Registered Nurses [CARNA]. (2002). New report confirms increasing shortage of registered nurses in Alberta. Retrieved November 14, 2006, from: http://www.nurses.ab.ca.
- CARNA (2005a). Continuing competence program. Edmonton, AB: Author.Google Scholar
- CARNA. (2005b). Entry to practice competencies. Retrieved April 19, 2006, from: http://nurses.ab.ca/pdf/Entry-to-Practice%20Competencies.pdf.
- CARNA. (2005c). Registration requirements for internationally educated nurse (IEN) applicants. Retrieved April 19, 2006, from: http://nurses.ab.ca.
- Council of Ministers of Education, Canada and Provincial/Territorial Labour Market Ministers (2002). Working together to strengthen learning and labour market training. Toronto, ON: Council of Ministers of Education, Canada and Provincial/Territorial Labour Market Ministers (October). Retrieved November 14, 2006, from: http://cmec.ca/releases/publications/edulabour.en.pdf.Google Scholar
- CRHA beats target for nurse recruitment: Authority winning “global war for talent.” (2001, February 13). Calgary Herald, p. B1.Google Scholar
- Downey, M. (Ed.). (2004). Immigration and emigration trends: A Canadian perspective. Ottawa, ON: The Nursing Sector Study Corporation.Google Scholar
- Esses, V., Dietz, J., Bennett-Abuayyash, & Joshi, C. (2007). Prejudice in the workplace: The role of bias against visible minorities in the devaluation of immigrants’ foreign-acquired qualifications and credentials. Canadian Issues, Spring, 114–118.Google Scholar
- Government of Alberta (1992). Bridging the gap: A report of the task force on the recognition of foreign qualifications. Edmonton, AB: Government of Alberta.Google Scholar
- Government of Alberta. (2004a). Today’s opportunities, tomorrow’s promise: A strategic plan for the government of Alberta. Retrieved March 24, 2004, from: http://www.finance.gov.ab.ca.
- Government of Alberta (2004b). Integrating skilled immigrants into the Alberta economy. Edmonton, AB: Government of Alberta.Google Scholar
- Government of Alberta (2005). Supporting immigrants and immigration to Alberta. Edmonton, AB: Government of Alberta.Google Scholar
- Government of Alberta. (2006). Consultation version building and educating tomorrow’s workforce: A framework to enhance Alberta’s people capacity. Retrieved February 14, 2006, from: http://w3.gov.ab.ca/hre/lmi/consultation/pdf/Strategy_Feb-7-06.pdf.
- Guttman, M. S. (2004). Increasing the linguistic competence of the nurse with limited English proficiency. Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 35(6), 264–269.Google Scholar
- Halliwell, C., Hawley, G., & Messele, T. (2004). Did you know? Some propositions about health human resources. In Health Canada. Health Policy Research Bulletin, Issue, 8, 34–35.Google Scholar
- Human Resources and Social Development Canada [HRSDC]. (2006). Overview – Foreign credential recognition. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from: http://www.sdc.gc.ca/asp/gateway.asp?hr=/en/ws/programs/fcr/overview.shtml&hs=hzp.
- International Council of Nurses. (2006). The global nursing shortage: Priority areas for intervention. Retrieved April 3, 2006, from: www.icn.ch/global/report2006.pdf.
- International Health Care Recruiters Inc. (2004). Assisting US healthcare organizations in relieving chronic staffing shortages by matching the experience and goals of our foreign trained medical professionals with the needs of your facility. Retrieved August 9, 2005, from: http://www.internationalhr.net/foreign_nurses-certification_program.html.
- Jeans, M. E., Hadley, F., Green, J., & Da Prat, C. (2005). Navigating to become a nurse in Canada: Assessment of international nurse applicants. Ottawa ON: Canadian Nurses’ Association.Google Scholar
- Khan, S. (2007). Skills International: Linking internationally educated and trained professionals with employers in Canada. Canadian Issues, Spring, 142–144.Google Scholar
- Kingma, M. (2006). Nurses on the move: Migration and the global health care community. London: ILR.Google Scholar
- Legislative Assembly of Ontario (2006). Bill 124: An act to provide for fair registration practices in Ontario’s regulated professions. Toronto, ON: Legislative Assembly of Ontario Retrieved November 14, 2006, from: http://www.citizenship.gov.on.ca/english/about/bill124/b124.pdf.Google Scholar
- Makhoul, A. (2002). Care for nurses program: Helping new Ontarians access the profession. Retrieved September 28, 2004, from: http://www.caledoninst.org.
- McGuire, M. (2004). A report on the issues, barriers and best practices related to PLAR and the advancement of internationally educated nurses and practical nurses into professional nursing education, registered nurse. Calgary, AB: Mount Royal College Retrieved November 14, 2006, from: http://wwwacad.mountroyal.ca/plarproject/en/plar/reports/.Google Scholar
- McGuire, M., & Murphy, S. (2005). The internationally educated nurse. Canadian Nurse, 10(1), 25–29.Google Scholar
- Mount Royal College (2006). Assessing the impact of Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition (PLAR) on the ease of admissibility and placement of internationally educated nurses and practical nurses into educational programs and employment in nursing. Final Report of the PLAR initiative for Human Resources and Skill Development Canada. Calgary, AB: Mount Royal College Soon available at http://wwwacad.mtroyal.ab.ca/plarproject/en/index.php.Google Scholar
- Ogilvie, L., Chiu, Y., Wrightson, D., Smith, L., Boyd, J., Brosseau, J., et al. (2000). Minority nurses for minority populations: A pilot study in public health nursing. Edmonton, AB: University of Alberta.Google Scholar
- Ontario Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities (2002). The facts are in! The study of characteristics and experiences of immigrants seeking employment in regulated professions in Ontario. Toronto, ON: Conference Board of Canada.Google Scholar
- Osborne, M. (2002). Access to licensure for foreign qualified nurses: A project of the Alberta Network of Immigrant Women. Calgary, AB: ANIW.Google Scholar
- Province of Alberta (2000). Health Professions Act. Edmonton, AB: Alberta Queen’s.Google Scholar
- Province of Alberta (2005). Registered Nurses Profession Regulation. Edmonton, AB: Alberta Queen’s.Google Scholar
- Reitz, J. G. (2005). Tapping immigrants’ skill: New directions for Canadian immigration policy in the knowledge economy. Choices, 11(1), 2–15.Google Scholar
- Schow, E., & McGuire, M. (2006). Transition perspectives: Reflections of internationally educated nurses. Calgary, AB: Mount Royal College.Google Scholar
- Shea, J. (2003). Creating access to regulated employment (care) for nurses project: Final evaluation report. Toronto, ON: Shea.Google Scholar