, Volume 10, Issue 2, pp 149–156 | Cite as

The Criterion or Criteria of Change

  • Xiaoqiang HanEmail author
Original Paper


In this paper, I offer an examination of the two existing criteria of change, one indicated, implicitly, by Aristotle and the other proposed, quite formally, by Russell. Both criteria engender problems. While the Aristotelian criterion is both too narrow and too broad, as it includes bogus changes and excludes subjectless changes, the Russellian criterion avoids the distinction between genuine changes and bogus changes completely. The aim of the paper is to address these problems and to show how these two existing criteria of change can be made to deal with the problems through revision and integration.


Aristotle Cambridge change Subjectless change Subject–predicate propositions Feature-placing propositions 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhilosophyUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada

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