Advertisement

Urban Forum

, Volume 28, Issue 2, pp 205–217 | Cite as

The Effect of Informal Settlement Upgrading on Women’s Social Networks: Layout Versus Location

  • Ruth T. MasseyEmail author
Article

Abstract

Informal settlements are prevalent in the South African urban landscape. Part of the attempt by the government to meet housing and infrastructure needs has been the in situ upgrading of these informal settlements. This paper explores the effect of in situ informal settlement upgrading on women’s social networks. Social networks are important as they allow access to various livelihood assets that are crucial for building sustainable livelihoods and resilient communities. The results of the research undertaken indicate that the newly upgraded informal settlements have not been conducive to the preservation or creation of women’s social networks due to poor layout planning and inadequate infrastructure provision. There is an assumption that if the informal settlements are upgraded in situ, social networks will not be disrupted. It is anticipated that, because the residents are in the same geographical area, they will be able to maintain their social networks. The paper makes the argument that, when it comes to sustaining social networks, settlement layout and infrastructure provision are just as important and geographical location.

Keywords

Informal settlement Upgrading Social networks Women Cape town 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Participants in the research are thanked for their willingness to participate in the study.

References

  1. Abbott, M. (2002). An analysis of informal settlement upgrading and critique of existing methodological approaches. Habitat International, 26(3), 303–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abbott, J. (2004). Upgrading an informal settlement in Cape Town, South Africa. In C. Tranberg, K. Hansen, & M. Vaa (Eds.), Reconsidering informality: perspectives from urban Africa. Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.Google Scholar
  3. Abrams, C. (1966). Housing in the modern world. London: Faber.Google Scholar
  4. Adlard, G. (2006). An evaluation of the new rest upgrade. Master’s thesis, Department of Environmental and Geographical Studies, Cape Town: University of Cape Town.Google Scholar
  5. Almaden, C., & Navarro, K. (2016). The social cost of upgrading informal settlements in Butuan City, Philippines. Journal of Urban Regeneration & Renewal, 9(3), 295–310.Google Scholar
  6. Angignu, N., & Huchzermeyer, M. (2009). Towards urban inclusion: Planact’s response to the phenomenon of informal settlements. Johannesburg: Planact.Google Scholar
  7. BBC. (2008). South African mob kills migrants. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/7396868.stm. Accessed 12 Jan 2009.
  8. Beall, J., Crankshaw, O., & Parnell, S. (2002). Participatory planning and informal settlement upgrading in Diepsloot. In J. Beall, O. Crankshaw, & S. Parnell (Eds.), Uniting a divided city: governance and social exclusion in Johannesburg. London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  9. Charlton, S. (2006). Learning from the local: experiences of informal settlement upgrading in Kwazulu-Natal. South African review of Sociology, 37(1), 48–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cohen, Y., & Shinar, A. (1985). Neighbourhoods, friendships and networks: a study of three residential neighbourhoods in Jerusalem. Illinois: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  11. Coleman, J. (1988). Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94, 95–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Davies, C. (2009). Fire risk in a formalized settlement: a case study of Vrygrond. Honours dissertation, Department of Environmental and Geographical Studies, Cape Town: University of Cape Town.Google Scholar
  13. Department of Housing. (2004). National housing policies. Pretoria: Department of Housing.Google Scholar
  14. Du Plessis, C. (2000). Analysing the sustainability of human settlements in South Africa—challenges and methods. Pretoria: CSIR.Google Scholar
  15. Gardener, D. (2003). Getting South Africans under shelter: an overview of the South African housing sector. Johannesburg: Housing Finance Resource Programme.Google Scholar
  16. Gilbert, A. (2007). The return of the slum: does language matter? International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 31(4), 697–713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Handzic, K. (2010). Is legalized land tenure necessary in slum upgrading? Learning from Rio's land tenure policies in the Favela Bairro Program. Habitat International, 34(1), 11–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hegazy, I. (2016). Informal settlement upgrading policies in Egypt: towards improvement in the upgrading process. Journal of Urbanism, 9(3), 254–275.Google Scholar
  19. Huchzermeyer, M. (1999). Current informal settlement intervention in South Africa: four case studies of people-driven initiative. Cape Town: CSIR Boutek, University of Cape Town.Google Scholar
  20. Huchzermeyer, M. (2004). From “contravention of laws” to “lack of rights”: redefining the problem of informal settlements in South Africa. Habitat International, 28(3), 333–347.Google Scholar
  21. Huchzermeyer, M. (2006). The new instrument for upgrading informal settlements in South Africa: contributions and constraints. In M. Huchzermeyer, & A. Karam (eds.), Informal settlements. A perpetual challenge? Cape Town: University of Cape Town Press.Google Scholar
  22. Huchzermeyer, M. (2008). Slum upgrading in Nairobi within the housing and basic services market: a housing rights concern. Journal of Asian and African Studies, 43(1), 19–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Huchzermeyer, M. (2009). The struggle for in situ upgrading of informal settlements: a reflection on cases in Gauteng. Development Southern Africa, 26(1), 59–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Imperato, I., & Ruster, J. (2003). Slum upgrading and participation: lessons from Latin America. Washington, DC: The World Bank.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jacobs, F., Jordhus-Lier, D., & de Wet, P. (2015). The politics of knowledge: knowledge management in informal settlement upgrading in Cape Town. Urban Forum, 26(4), 425–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Khalifa, M. (2015). Architectural engineering: evolution of informal settlements upgrading strategies in Egypt: from negligence to participatory development. Ain Shams Engineering Journal, 6(4), 1151–1159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Khan, F., & Thring, P. (Eds.). (2003). Housing policy and practice in post-apartheid South Africa. Sandown: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  28. Ley, A. (2009). Housing as governance: interfaces between local government and civic society organisations in Cape Town, South Africa. PhD thesis (PhD), Von der Fakultät VI – Planen Bauen Umwelt der Technischen, Berlin: Universität Berlin.Google Scholar
  29. Liu, A., & Besser, T. (2003). Social capital and participation in community activities by elderly residents in small town and rural communities. Rural Sociology, 68(3), 343–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Marais, L., & Ntema, J. (2013). The upgrading of an informal settlement in South Africa: twenty years onwards. Habitat International, 39, 85–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Marshall, S., Stevens, L., Kimmie, Z. & Rule, S. (2001). Evaluation of time series study at Albertina, Eatonside, Joandeao and Soshanguve South Extension 4. Johannesburg. Upgrading Gauteng’s informal settlements, Volume 1–6.Google Scholar
  32. Marx, C. (2003). Supporting informal settlements. In F. Khan & P. Thring (Eds.), Housing policy and practice in post-apartheid South Africa. Sandown: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  33. Massey, R. (2013). Competing rationalities and informal settlement upgrading in Cape Town, South Africa: a recipe for failure. Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, 28(4), 605–613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Maylam, P., & Edwards, I. (Eds.). (1996). The people’s city: African life in twentieth century Durban. Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press.Google Scholar
  35. Menshawy, A., Aly, S., Salman, A. (2011). Sustainable upgrading of informal settlements in the developing world, case study: Ezzbet Abd El Meniem Riyadh, Alexandria, Egypt. International Conference on Green Buildings and Sustainable Cities, Procedia Engineering, 2011, 21, 168–177.Google Scholar
  36. Misselhorn, M. (2008). Position paper on informal settlement upgrading. Part of a strategy for the second economy. Cape Town: Urban LandMark, Office of the South African Presidency.Google Scholar
  37. Moser, C. (1996). Confronting crisis: a comparative study of household responses to poverty and vulnerability in four poor urban communities. Washington: The World Bank.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ngetich, J., Opata, G., Mwasi, B., Obiri, J., & Meli, N. (2016). Policies and strategies for tackling informal settlements: lessons for Kenya. Journal of Emerging Trends in Economics and Management Sciences, 7(2), 130–136.Google Scholar
  39. Ntema, L. & Marais, L. (2010). Institutionalised self-help housing and state interference: case studies from the free state. Acta Structulia, 17(2), 84–106.Google Scholar
  40. Ntema, J., & Marais, L. (2013). Comparing low-income housing outcomes in self-help and contractor-driven projects: the case for longitudinal research. Urban Forum, 24(3), 389–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Oldfield, S. (2002). Partial formalization and its implications for community governance in an informal settlement. Urban Forum, 13(20), 102–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pieterse, E. (2008). City futures: confronting the crisis of urban development. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  43. Pikholz, L. (1997). Managing politics and storytelling: Meeting the challenge of upgrading informal housing in South Africa. Habitat International, 21(4), 377–396.Google Scholar
  44. Pottie, D. (2003). Challenges to local government in low-income housing delivery. In F. Khan & P. Thring (eds.), Housing policy and practice in Post-Apartheid South Africa. Sandown: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  45. Saff, G. (1994). The changing face of the South Africa city: from urban apartheid to the deracialization of space. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 18(3), 377–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sander, T. (2002). Social capital and new urbanism: leading a civic horse to water. National Civic Review, 91, 213–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Shortt, N., & Hammett, D. (2013). Housing and health in an informal settlement upgrade in Cape Town, South Africa. Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, 28(4), 615–627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Smit, W. (2006). Understanding the complexities of informal settlements: insights from cape town. In M. Huchzermeyer & A. Karam (Eds.), Informal settlements. A perpetual challenge? Cape Town: University of Cape Town Press.Google Scholar
  49. Statistics South Africa. (1998). The people of South Africa population. Census, 1996 database. Pretoria: Statistics South Africa.Google Scholar
  50. Statistics South Africa. (2001). South Africa population statistics. http://www.statssa.gov.za. Accessed 3 Aug 2012.
  51. Syagga, P., Winnie, M., Mitullah, V., & Gitau, S. (2001). Slum upgrading lessons learned in Nairobi. Habitat Debate, 1.Google Scholar
  52. Tshikotshi, V. (2009). The challenges of eradicating informal settlements in South Africa by 2014. The case of Seraleng sustainable human settlement, Rustenburg local municipality, North West Province. Master’s thesis, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Johannesburg: University of the Witwatersrand.Google Scholar
  53. Turley, R., Saith, R. B. N., Rehfuess, E., & Carter, B. (2013). Slum upgrading strategies involving physical environment and infrastructure interventions and their effects on health and socio-economic outcomes. Cochrane Database of Systematic Review, 1, CD010067. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD010067.pub2.Google Scholar
  54. Turner, J. (1967). Barriers and channels for housing development in modernizing countries. Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 33(3), 167–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Turner, J. (1968). Housing priorities, settlement patterns, and urban development in modernizing countries. Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 34(6), 354–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Turner, J. (1977). Housing by people: towards autonomy in building environments. New York: Pantheon Books.Google Scholar
  57. Turner, J., & Fichter, R. (1972). Freedom to build: dweller control of the housing process. New York: Macmillan Company.Google Scholar
  58. Werlin, H. (1999). The slum upgrading myth. Urban Studies, 36(9), 1523–1534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Yose, C. (1999). From shacks to houses: space usage and social change in a Western Cape shanty town. Master’s thesis, Department of Social Anthropology, Cape Town: University of Cape Town.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeographyUniversity of the Free StateBloemfonteinSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations