Advertisement

Urban Forum

, Volume 27, Issue 2, pp 129–147 | Cite as

Between the City Lights and the Shade of Exclusion: Post-War Accelerated Urban Transformation of Luanda, Angola

  • Cristina Udelsmann Rodrigues
  • Sónia Frias
Article

Abstract

With nearly five centuries of history and major war-related impacts in the second half of the twentieth century, Luanda has recently been subject to outstanding changes that make the capital of Angola an important urban case study for Africa. Today, the city is not only an evident materialization of the oil wealth being channelled into reconstruction after decades of civil war but also reflects and translates the diverse perspectives of its residents and policy makers regarding the city and urban life. As it is reconfigured, it also transforms the mentalities and daily lives of urban dwellers and policy stakeholders, reinforcing the idea of improvement and modernity. In order to better understand the processes of physical and social change that have taken place within the city and the intertwined logics, this article makes reference to three distinct key stages of its history, pointing out their main features and the transformations that have occurred: the colonial period of sociospatial dualization (1576–1974), the period between independence and the last peace agreement (1975–2002) of profound and extensive urban mixture and the post-war period (2002–present) marked by accelerated sociospatial reconfigurations. More specifically, it analyses the very recent urban phenomena, the urban plans and new urban features, discussing the correlations between physical transformations and the rationalities and perspectives that accompany them, both of the urban planners and of the urban dwellers, discussing the implications in terms of new inclusions and exclusions in the city.

Keywords

Angola Urban transformation Modernity Sociospatial reconfiguration 

References

  1. A1V2 (2009) Termos de Referência: Plano Director Geral Municipal de Luanda. A1V2 and IPGUL, Luanda.Google Scholar
  2. Amaral, I. (1962). Ensaio de um estudo Geográfico da Rede Urbana de Angola. Lisboa: Junta de Investigações do Ultramar.Google Scholar
  3. Amaral, I. (1983). Luanda e os seus “muceques”: problemas de Geografia Urbana. Finisterra: Revista Portuguesa de Geografia, 18(36), 293–325.Google Scholar
  4. Beall, J., Crankshaw, O., & Parnell, S. (2002). Uniting a divided city: governance and social exclusion in Johannesburg. Sterling: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  5. Buire, C. (2014). The dream and the ordinary: an ethnographic investigation of suburbanisation in Luanda. African Studies, 73, 2.Google Scholar
  6. Cain, A. (2013). Luanda’s post-war land markets: reducing poverty by promoting inclusion. Urban Forum, 24(1), 11–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cain, A. (2014). African urban fantasies: past lessons and emerging realities. Environment and Urbanization, 26(2), 561–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Croese, S. (2012). One million houses? Chinese engagement in Angola’s national reconstruction. In M. Power & A. C. Alves (Eds.), China and Angola: a marriage of convenience? Cape Town: Pambazuka.Google Scholar
  9. Croese, S. (2013) Post-war state-led development at work in Angola: The Zango housing project in Luanda as a case study. PhD Thesis, Stellenbosch University.Google Scholar
  10. De Boeck, F., & Plissart, M.-F. (2004). Tales of the invisible city. Ghent: Ludion.Google Scholar
  11. de Oliveira, R. S. (2015). Magnificent and beggar land: Angola since the civil war. London: Hurst.Google Scholar
  12. Development Workshop (2011) The case of Angola: Strengthening citizenship through upgrading informal settlements. Final Synthesis Report to the World Bank, Luanda.Google Scholar
  13. Development Workshop (2013) New Political Administrative Division of Luanda, https://angolaenglish.wordpress.com/2013/01/03/new-political-administrative-division-of-luanda-province/.
  14. Ferguson, J. (1999). Expectations of modernity: myths and meaning of urban life in the Zambian Copperbelt. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  15. Fonte, M. (2012). Urbanismo e arquitetura em Angola: De Norton de Matos à revolução. Casal de Cambra: Caleidoscópio.Google Scholar
  16. Gastrow, C. (2013/2014) “Vamos Construir!”: Property claims and locating authority in Luanda, Angola. Politique Africaine 132, 49–72.Google Scholar
  17. Gastrow, C. (2014) Negotiated settlements: Housing and citizenship in Luanda, Angola. PhD Thesis, University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  18. Glass, R. (1964). London: aspects of change. London: Centre for Urban Studies and MacGibbon and Kee.Google Scholar
  19. INE—Instituto Nacional de Estatística. (2011). IBEP: Inquérito Integrado sobre o Bem-Estar da População. Luanda: INE.Google Scholar
  20. INE – Instituto Nacional de Estatística. (2014). Resultados Preliminares do Censo 2014. Luanda: INE.Google Scholar
  21. IPGUL. (2014). Revista IPGUL, n°6. Luanda: Instituto de Planeamento e Gestão Urbana de Luanda.Google Scholar
  22. Jenkins, P. (2006). Image of the city in Mozambique: civilization, parasite, engine of growth or place of opportunity. In D. F. Bryceson & D. Potts (Eds.), African urban economies. Viability, vitality or vitiation? Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  23. Lara, T., & Bekker, M. C. (2012). Resident satisfaction as a project quality measure: the case of Nova Vida housing project, Angola. Journal of Contemporary Management, 9, 364–81.Google Scholar
  24. Lemanski, C. (2007). Global cities in the South: deepening social and spatial polarisation in Cape Town. Cities, 24(6), 448–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Martins, M. J. (1993). No Sobrado Sobre a Baía: retrato da burguesia de Luanda no final do século XIX. Camões: Revista de Letras e Culturas lusófonas, 1, 46–53.Google Scholar
  26. Martins, M. J. (1998). Luanda (1870–1910): forma de vida das elites. Historia, 3(1), 22–25.Google Scholar
  27. Martins, M. I. (2005). A evolução de Luanda e o fenómeno da globalização. Ur Cadernos da Faculdade de Arquitectura da Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, 5, 56–61.Google Scholar
  28. Mbembe, A., & Nuttal, S. (2004). Writing the world from an African metropolis. Public Culture, 16(3), 347–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mendes, M. C. (1988). Slum housing in Luanda, Angola: problems and possibilities. In R. Obudho & C. C. Mhlanga (Eds.), Slum and squatter settlement in Sub-Saharan Africa. New York: Præger.Google Scholar
  30. Mendes, M. C., Coelho, C. D., Carneiro, L., Fonte, M., Fernandes, S., Rizzone, A., Proença, S., & Gilberto, C. (2005). Os planos urbanísticos no contexto Africano: a experiência portuguesa. Ur Cadernos da Faculdade de Arquitectura da Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, 5, 40–47.Google Scholar
  31. Monteiro, R. L. (1973). A família nos Musseques de Luanda: Subsídios para o seu estudo. Luanda: Fundo de Acção Social no Trabalho em Angola.Google Scholar
  32. Mourão, F.A.A. (1997) ‘Configurações dos núcleos humanos de Luanda do séc. XVI ao séc. XIX, Actas de Seminário Encontro de Povos e Culturas em Angola, sl. Comissão Nacional para as Comemorações dos Descobrimentos Portugueses.Google Scholar
  33. Oliveira, M. A. F. (1963). Aspectos sociais de Luanda inferidos nos anúncios publicados na sua imprensa: análise preliminar ao ano de 1881. Actas do V Colóquio Internacional de estudos Luso-Brasileiros, 3, 127–139.Google Scholar
  34. Potts, D., & Bryceson, D. (2006). African urban economies: viability, vitality, or vitiation. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  35. Power, M. (2012). Angola 2025: the future of the “world’s richest poor country” as seen through a Chinese rear-view mirror. Antipode, 44(3), 993–1014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Roque, S. (2011). Cidade and bairro: classification, constitution and experience of urban space in Angola. Social Dynamics, 37(3), 332–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Shatkin, G. (2007). Global cities of the South: emerging perspectives on growth and inequality. Cities, 24(1), 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Simone, A. (2011). Deals with imaginaries and perspectives: reworking urban economies in Kinshasa. Social Dynamics, 37(1), 111–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Smith, N. (2002). New globalism, new urbanism: gentrification as global urban strategy. Antipode, 34(3), 427–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Udelsmann Rodrigues, C. (2007). From family solidarity to social classes: urban stratification in Angola (Luanda and Ondjiva). Journal of Southern African Studies, 33(2), 235–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Udelsmann Rodrigues, C. (2009). Angolan cities: urban (re)segregation? In F. Locatelli & P. Nugent (Eds.), African cities: competing claims on urban spaces. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  42. UN – United Nations (2014) World Urbanization Prospects. http://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/Highlights/WUP2014-Highlights.pdf. Accessed 2 Dec 2015.
  43. Venâncio, J. C. (1996). A Economia de Luanda e Hinterland no século XVIII: Um estudo de sociologia histórica. Lisbon: Editorial Estampa.Google Scholar
  44. Venâncio, J. (2013) O Bairro Prenda em Luanda entre o formal e o informal. Master thesis, Universidade de Arquitetura, University of Porto.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nordic Africa InstituteUppsalaSweden
  2. 2.Institute of Social and Political SciencesUniversity of LisbonLisbonPortugal
  3. 3.Centro de Estudos sobre África, Ásia e América Latina (CEsA), CSG, ISEG, University of LisbonLisbonPortugal

Personalised recommendations