Overcoming the Challenge of Vertical Consolidation in South Africa's Low-Income Settlements: a Case Study of Du Noon
- First Online:
- 379 Downloads
Theoretically, the evident demand for housing in growing cities, particularly in the Global South would result in vertical consolidation of properties. However, unlike places in Latin America, where market and state responses to urbanisation are pushing cities higher and higher, in South Africa, the densification and land use intensity has, generally, remained horizontal, rather than vertical in nature. Du Noon offers an interesting counter position to this narrative. Unlike other Reconstruction and Development Housing Programme settlements, many property owners are demolishing the state-delivered units and erecting double-storey rental accommodation. Drawing from interviews conducted with 21 of these structure owners, this paper explores the drivers of this ‘vertical consolidation’ in Du Noon drawing lessons for housing policy and practice in South Africa.
KeywordsHousing South Africa Incremental Land markets Du Noon Density
- Adebayo, P. (2008). Preconditions for housing consolidation: towards a suitable package of support for incremental housing in South Africa: a case study of eThekweni municipality.Google Scholar
- Berrisford, S. (2011). Unravelling apartheid spatial planning legislation in South Africa. Urban Forum: Springer. 247.Google Scholar
- Bertaud, A. (2009) Note on spatial issues in South Africa. Available at http://alainbertaud.com.
- Bertaud, A. (2010) Land markets, government intervention and housing affordability. Wolfensohn Centre for Development at Brookings. Working Paper 18. Available at http://alainbertaud.com.
- Built Environment Support Group. (2000). Study of post-housing subsidy housing consolidation in the Durban Metropolitan Area: executive summary. Available at http://www.besg.co.za/downloads/Housing_consolidation_Nov_2000.pdf
- Burton, E., Jenks, M., & Williams, K. (Eds.). (2004). The compact city: a sustainable urban form? London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Charlton, S., & Kihato, C. (2006). Reaching the poor? An analysis of the influences on the evolution of South Africa’s housing programme. Democracy and delivery: Urban policy in South Africa, pp. 252–282Google Scholar
- Department of Housing, Local Government, and Planning: Provincial Administration: Western Cape (1995) Approval of layout plan for the less formal settlement: Du noon, Milnerton.Google Scholar
- Department of Human Settlements. (2004). “Breaking new ground”: a comprehensive plan for the development of sustainable human settlements. Pretoria: Housing Policy, Department of Human Settlements.Google Scholar
- Development Action Group. (2003). Review of international and national trends and best practice in housing. Cape Town: Development Action Group.Google Scholar
- Dewar, D. (2000). The relevance of the compact city approach: the management of urban growth in South African cities. Compact Cities: sustainable Urban Forms for Developing Countries. pp. 209–218Google Scholar
- Financial and Fiscal Commission. (2011) The Economic and Fiscal Costs of Inefficient Land Use Patterns in South Africa (final report). Palmer Development Group. http://pdg.co.za/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/FFC-cost-of-inefficient-land-use.pdf. Accessed 31 July 2013
- Glahe, F., & Lee, D. (1989). Microeconomics—theory and application. Second Edition. Orlando: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc.Google Scholar
- Goodall, B. (1972). The economics of urban areas. Urban and Regional Planning Series. Oxford: Pergamon PressGoogle Scholar
- Goodland, R. (1996). The housing challenge in South Africa. Urban Studies, 33, 1629–1645.Google Scholar
- Harrison, P., Huchzermeyer, M. and Mayekiso, M. (2003). Confronting fragmentation: housing and urban development in a democratising society. Juta AcademicGoogle Scholar
- Harrison, P., Todes, A., & Watson, V. (2008). Planning and transformation: Learning from the post-apartheid experience. London: RoutledgeGoogle Scholar
- Harvey, J., & Jowsey, E. (2004). Urban land economics (6th ed.). New York: Palgrave MacMillan.Google Scholar
- Jenks, M. (2000). Compact cities: sustainable urban forms for developing countries. In: R. Burgess (ed). London: Taylor & FrancisGoogle Scholar
- Khan, F., & Thring, P. (2003). Housing policy and practice in post-apartheid South Africa. Sandown South Africa: Heinemann Educational Books.Google Scholar
- Khosa, M. (2000) Infrastructure mandate for change: 1994–1999. Pretoria. HSRC.Google Scholar
- Landau, L, Gindrey, V. (2008) Gauteng 2055—trend paper: population & migration. Report prepared for the Gauteng Department of Economic Development.Google Scholar
- Marx, C. and Berrisford, S. (2007) Do informal land markets work for poor people? An assessment of three metropolitan cities in South Africa: literature review. Pretoria: Urban LandMark. Available at http://www.urbanlandmar.org.za
- McDonald, J., & McMillen, D. (2011). Urban economics and real estate: theory and policy (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley and Sons, Inc.Google Scholar
- Napier, M. (2002). Core housing, enablement and urban poverty: the consolidation paths of households living in two South African settlements. PhD thesis. University of NewcastleGoogle Scholar
- Napier, M., Berrisford, S., Kihato, C., McGaffin, R., & Royston, L. (2013). Trading places—accessing land in African cities. Johannesburg: African Minds.Google Scholar
- National Department of Human Settlements. (2010). For outcome 8 delivery agreements: sustainable human settlements and improved quality of household life. Available at http://www.info.gov.za/view/DownloadFileAction?id=135746.
- National Department of Human Settlements. (2013). Enhancements to the national norms and standards for the construction of stand alone residential dwellings and engineering services and adjustment of the housing subsidy quantum.Google Scholar
- Nuttall, J. (1997). The first five years: the story of the independent development trust. Cape Town: Independent Development Trust.Google Scholar
- Pieterse, E. (2009). Post-apartheid geographies in South Africa: why are urban divides so persistent. Interdisciplinary debates on development and cultures: cities in development spaces (p. 15). Leuven University: Conflicts and Agency.Google Scholar
- Royston, L. (2009) Informal land markets and the poor. Presentation to the Policy and Development Management Course. University of the Witwatersrand. Urban LandMarkGoogle Scholar
- Rubin, M. and Gardner, D. 2013. Development of a response to backyarding. Prepared for: the South African Local Government Association (SALGA) (Final Report).Google Scholar
- Rust, K. 2006. Analysis of South Africa’s housing. FinMark Trust: sector performanceGoogle Scholar
- Shisaka Development Management Services (2011) RDP asset study—qualitative report. Prepared for the FinMark Trust. Available at www.housingfinanceafrica.org.
- Shisaka Development Management Services. (2004) Township residential property market. Report. Prepared for the FinMark Trust. Available at www.housingfinanceafrica.org.
- Smith, D. M. (Ed.). (1992). The apartheid city and beyond: urbanization and social change in South Africa. London: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
- Syagga P, Mittullah W and Karirah-Gitau S. (2002) Nairobi situation analysis supplementary study: a rapid economic appraisal of rents in slums and informal settlements. Report prepared for the Government of Kenya and United Nations Human Settlements Programme.Google Scholar
- Tissington, K. (2011). A resource guide to housing in South Africa 1994–2010: legislation, policy, programmes and practice. SERIGoogle Scholar
- Tomlinson, M. (1992). South Africa’s housing policy: lessons learnt from four years of the new housing subsidy scheme. Third World Planning Review, 2(3), 283–296.Google Scholar
- Wolff, H. (2011) A study of privately-delivered rental housing in Du Noon, Cape Town. Presentation to the South African Housing Foundation.Google Scholar