Advertisement

Self-Assessed Health Status among Ethnic Elderly of Tea Garden Workers in Bangladesh

  • Md Kamrul HossainEmail author
  • Kanis Fatama Ferdushi
  • Hafiz T. A. Khan
Article
  • 1 Downloads

Abstract

The proportion of elderly has been increased gradually over the past years and this has created many causes for concerns particularly in individual’s health status. Relatively little is known about health status of older ethnic group across the world. The study aims to explore the health status of ethnic elderly among Tea Garden workers in Bangladesh. A total of 229 elderly were interviewed from different tea gardens. Prevalence ratio and adjusted prevalence ratio were calculated using simple and multiple Poisson regression analysis. The study revealed that more than 90% of the elderly had suffered from multi-morbidity. Gender, age, family behavior, number of meals in a day, taking milk or milk products and taking sugar were highly associated factor to lead healthy life for elderly. Female and unemployed elderly were in more risk to suffer from multi-morbidity, illiterate were also a risk factor for multi-morbidity but effected by confounding factors. An elderly who rated himself as unhealthy was 1.75 times more risk in compare to healthy elderly. In addition, the ethnic elderly who were suffering from difficulties of seeing, getting up, standing, remembering and others disability were in more risk of suffering from multi-morbidity.

Keywords

Multi-morbidity Ethnic elderly Self-rate health status 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Dr. Ferdushi is grateful to the Shahjalal University of Science and Technology (SUST) Research Center for funding this study.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

There is no conflict of interest among the authors.

Informed Consent

None.

Ethical Treatment of Experimental Subjects (Animal and Human)

None.

References

  1. Albano, J. D., Ward, E., Jemal, A., Anderson, R., Cokkinides, V. E., Murray, T., Henley, J., Liff, J., & Thun, M. J. (2007). Cancer mortality in the United States by education level and race. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 99, 1384–1394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ali, M.Y. (1999). Textbook of community medicine and public health. 3rd ed. Dhaka: RKH Publishers.Google Scholar
  3. Ahmed, S. M., Tomson, G., Petzold, M., & Kabir, Z. N. (2005). Socioeconomic status overrides age and gender in determining health-seeking behaviour in rural Bangladesh. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 83, 109–117.Google Scholar
  4. Banjare, P., Pradhan, J., Chaturvedi, S. (2014). Socio-economic inequalities in the prevalence of multi-morbidity among the rural elderly in Bargarh District of Odisha (India). PLoS ONE, 9(6), e97832.Google Scholar
  5. Britt, H. C., Harrison, C. M., Miller, G. C., & Knox, S. A. (2008). Prevalence and patterns of multimorbidity in Australia. The Medical Journal of Australia, 189, 72–77.Google Scholar
  6. Beydoun, M. A., & Popkin, B. M. (2005). The impact of socio-economic factors on functional status decline among community-dwelling older adults in China. Social Science & Medicine, 60(9), 2045–2057.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cameron, A. C., & Trivedi, P. K. (2013). Regression of count data (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  8. Cohen, S. (2004). Social relationships and health. American Psychologist, 59(8), 676–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Calle, E. E., Rodriguez, C., Walker-Thurmond, K., & Thun, M. J. (2003). Overweight, obesity, and mortality from cancer in a prospectively studied cohort of U.S. adults. The New England Journal of Medicine, 348, 1625–1638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cohen, S., & Syme, S. L. (1985). Social support and health. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  11. Daveluy, C., Pica, L., Audet, N., Courtemanche, R., & Lapointe, F. (2000). Enquête sociale et de santé 1998. Québec, Institut de la statistique du Québec, 2e, 57–295.Google Scholar
  12. De Vries, N. M., Van Ravensberg, C. D., Hobbelen, J. S. M., Rikkert, M. G. M. O., Staal, J. B., & Van Der Sanden, M. W. G. N. (2012). Effects of physical exercise therapy on mobility, physical functioning, physical activity and quality of life in community-dwelling older adults with impaired mobility, physical disability and/or multi-morbidity: a meta-analysis. Ageing Research Reviews, 11(1), 136–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Druss, B. G., Marcus, S. C., Rosenheck, R. A., Olfson, M., Tanielian, T., & Pincus, H. A. (2000). Understanding disability in mental and general medical conditions. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157(9), 1485–1491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fedewa, S. A., Etzioni, R., Flanders, W. D., Jemal, A., & Ward, E. M. (2010). Association of insurance and race/ethnicity with disease severity among men diagnosed with prostate cancer, National Cancer Database 2004–2006. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, 19, 2437–2444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Flores, R., & Gillespie, S. (2001). Health and nutrition: Emerging and reemerging issues in developing countries (No. 571–2016–39072).Google Scholar
  16. Glynn, L. G., Valderas, J. M., Healy, P., Burke, E., Newell, J., Gillespie, P., & Murphy, A. W. (2011). The prevalence of multimorbidity in primary care and its effect on health care utilization and cost. Family Practice, 28(5), 516–523.Google Scholar
  17. Gomez, S. L., O'Malley, C. D., Stroup, A., Shema, S. J., & Satariano, W. A. (2007). Longitudinal, population-based study of racial/ethnic differences in colorectal cancer survival: Impact of neighborhood socioeconomic status, treatment and comorbidity. BMC Cancer, 7, 193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gill, T. M., Gahbauer, E. A., Han, L., & Allore, H. G. (2010). Trajectories of disability in the last year of life. New England Journal of Medicine, 362(13), 1173–1180.Google Scholar
  19. Guralnik, J. M. (1996). Assessing the impact of comorbidity in the older population. Annals of Epidemiology, 6, 376–380 [PubMed].CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hilbe, J. M. (2014). Modeling count data. New York, NY: Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  21. Hudon, C., Soubhi, H., & Fortin, M. (2008). Relationship between multimorbidity and physical activity: Secondary analysis from the Quebec health survey. BMC Public Health, 8(1), 304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. House, J. S., Landis, K. R., & Umberson, D. (1988). Social relationships and health. Science, 241, 540–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Holt-Lunstad, J., Smith, T. B., & Layton, J. B. (2010). Social relationships and mortality risk: A meta-analytic review. PLoS Medicine, 7(7), e1000316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Idler, E. L., & Benyamini, Y. (1997). Self-rated health and mortality: A review of twenty-seven community studies. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 21–37.Google Scholar
  25. Jie, Y., Isa, Z. M., Jie, X., Ju, Z. L., & Ismail, N. H. (2013). Urban vs. Rural factors that affect adult asthma. In Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology (Vol. 226, pp. 33–63). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  26. Joshi, K., Kumar, R., & Avasthi, A. (2003). Morbidity profile and its relationship with disability and psychological distress among elderly people in northern India. International Journal of Epidemiology, 32, 978–987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jylhä, M. (2009). What is self-rated health and why does it predict mortality? Towards a unified conceptual model. Social Science & Medicine, 69(3), 307–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Keller, H. H., Dwyer, J. J., Senson, C., Edwards, V., & Edward, G. (2007). A social ecological perspective of the influential factors for food access described by low-income seniors. Journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition, 1(3), 27–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kabir, Z. N., Tishelman, C., Agüero-Torres, H., Chowdhury, A. M. R., Winblad, B., & Höjer, B. (2003). Gender and rural–urban differences in reported health status by older people in Bangladesh. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 37(1), 77–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Khokhar, S., Stern, Y., Bell, K., Anderson, K., Noe, E., Mayeux, R., & Albert, S. (2001). Persistent mobility deficit in the absence of deficits in activities of daily living: A risk factor for mortality. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 49, 1539–1543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kaplan, M. S., Newsom, J. T., McFarland, B. H., & Lu, L. (2001). Demographic and psychosocial correlates of physical activity in late life. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 21, 306–312.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0749-3797(01)00364-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Khanam, M. A., Streatfield, P. K., Kabir, Z. N., Qiu, C., Cornelius, C., & Wahlin, Å. (2011). Prevalence and patterns of multimorbidity among elderly people in rural Bangladesh: A cross-sectional study. Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition, 29(4), 406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kinsey, T., Jemal, A., Liff, J., Ward, E., & Thun, M. (2008). Secular trends in mortality from common cancers in the United States by educational attainment, 1993–2001. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 100, 1003–1012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kivimäki, M., Kuosma, E., Ferrie, J. E., Luukkonen, R., Nyberg, S. T., Alfredsson, L., Batty, G. D., et al. (2017). Overweight, obesity, and risk of cardiometabolic multimorbidity: pooled analysis of individual-level data for 120 813 adults from 16 cohort studies from the USA and Europe. The Lancet Public Health, 2(6), e277–e285.Google Scholar
  35. Landi, F., Liperoti, R., Russo, A., Capoluongo, E., Barillaro, C., Pahor, M., Bernabei, R. & Onder, G. (2010). Disability, more than multimorbidity, was predictive of mortality among older persons aged 80 years and older. Journal of clinical epidemiology, 63(7), 752–759.Google Scholar
  36. Marengoni, A., Angleman, S., Melis, R., Mangialasche, F., Karp, A., Garmen, A., Meinow, B., & Fratiglioni, L. (2011). Aging with multimorbidity: A systematic review of the literature. Ageing Research Reviews, 10(4), 430–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mein, G. K., Shipley, M. J., Hillsdon, M., Ellison, G. T., & Marmot, M. G. (2005). Work, retirement and physical activity: Cross-sectional analyses from the Whitehall II study. European Journal of Public Health, 15, 317–322.  https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/cki087.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Montero-Odasso, M., Bergman, H., Beland, F., Sourial, N., Fletcher, J. D., & Dallaire, L. (2009). Identifying mobility heterogeneity in very frail older adults. Are frail people all the same? Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 49, 272–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Miah, A., Miah, M. M. H., Kamal, M., Chowdhury, M. I., & Rahmatullah, M. (2012). Natural radioactivity and associated dose rates in soil samples of Malnichera tea garden in Sylhet district of Bangladesh. Journal of Nuclear and Particle Physics, 2(6), 147–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Muaz, S. S. A., Hasan, M. R., Shamim, S. A., Dev, A., & Kamar, S. (2010). Nutritional status of 1-5 years children of the tea Workers in Sylhet division. Bangladesh Journal of Child Health, 34(1), 11–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. McGee, D., Cooper, R., Liao, Y., & Durazo-Arvizu, R. (1996). Patterns of comorbidity and mortality risk in Blacks and Whites. Annals of Epidemiology, 6, 381–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Mayberry, R. M., Coates, R. J., Hill, H. A., Click, L. A., Chen, V. W., Austin, D. F., Redmond, C. K., Fenoglio-Preiser, C. M., Hunter, C. P., Haynes, M. A., Muss, H. B., Wesley, M. N., Greenberg, R. S., & Edwards, B. K. (1995). Determinants of black/white differences in colon cancer survival. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 87, 1686–1693.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. National Institute of Mental Health (2017). What is Prevalence? Retrieve from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/statistics/what-is-prevalence.shtml on 27 August, 2018.
  44. Purty, A. J., Bazroy, J., Kar, M., Vasudevan, K., Veliath, A., & Panda, P. (2006). Morbidity pattern among the elderly population in the rural area of Tamil Nadu. India. Turk J Med Sci., 36, 45–50.Google Scholar
  45. Putt, M., Long, J. A., Montagnet, C., Silber, J. H., Chang, V. W., Liao, K., et al. (2009). Racial differences in the impact of comorbidities on survival among elderly men with prostate cancer. Medical Care Research and Review, 66(4), 409–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rodriguez, C., Freedland, S. J., Deka, A., Jacobs, E. J., McCullough, M. L., Patel, A. V., Thun, M. J., & Calle, E. E. (2007). Body mass index, weight change, and risk of prostate cancer in the Cancer prevention study II nutrition cohort. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, 16, 63–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Schneider, S., & Becker, S. (2005). Prevalence of physical activity among the working population and correlation with work-related factors: results from the first German National Health Survey. Journal of Occupational Health, 47, 414–423.  https://doi.org/10.1539/joh.47.414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Shahidullah, M (2017). Common health problems in elderly people in the independent, retrieve from http://www.theindependentbd.com/arcprint/details/11790/2017-10-09 on 29 April, 2018.
  49. Srinivasan, K., Vaz, M., & Thomas, T. (2010). Prevalence of health related disability among community dwelling urban elderly from middle socioeconomic strata in Bangaluru, India. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 131(4).Google Scholar
  50. Sharkey, J. R. (2003). Risk and presence of food insufficiency are associated with low nutrient intakes and multimorbidity among homebound older women who receive home-delivered meals. The Journal of Nutrition, 133(11), 3485–3491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tewari, A. K., Gold, H. T., Demers, R. Y., Johnson, C. C., Yadav, R., Wagner, E. H., Field, T. S., Divine, G., & Menon, M. (2009). Effect of socioeconomic factors on long-term mortality in men with clinically localized prostate cancer. Urology., 73, 624–630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Tammemagi, C. M., Nerenz, D., Neslund-Dudas, C., Feldkamp, C., & Nathanson, D. (2005). Comorbidity and survival disparities among black and white patients with breast cancer. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association., 294, 1765–1772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. UN (2019). Ageing retrieve fromhttp://www.un.org/en/sections/issues-depth/ageing/. Accessed 07 Jan 2019
  54. van den Akker, M., Buntinx, F., & Knottnerus, J. A. (1996). Comorbidity or multimorbidity: what's in a name? A review of literature. The European Journal of General Practice, 2, 65–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. van den Akker, M., Buntinx, F., Metsemakers, J. F. M., Roos, S., & Knottnerus, J. A. (1998). Multimorbidity in general practice: Prevalence, incidence, and determinants of co-occurring chronic and recurrent diseases. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 51, 367–375 [PubMed].CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. van den Akker, M., Buntinx, F., & Knottnerus, J. A. (1996b). Comorbidity or multimorbidity: what's in a name? A review of literature. The European Journal of General Practice, 2(2), 65–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Violan, C., Foguet-Boreu, Q., Flores-Mateo, G., Salisbury, C., Blom, J., Freitag, M., Glynn, L., Muth, C., & Valderas, J. M. (2014). Prevalence, determinants and patterns of multimorbidity in primary care: A systematic review of observational studies. PLoS One, 9(7), e102149.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. World Health Organization. (2011). Global health and aging (pp. 1–32). Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  59. World Health Organization. (2004). Towards age-friendly primary health care (p. 11). Geneva: World Health Organization (31 accessed on 15 February 2009).Google Scholar
  60. World Population Ageing (2017) report Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division.Google Scholar
  61. Zhou, B., Chen, K., Wang, J., Wang, H., Zhang, S., & Zheng, W. (2011). Quality of life and related factors in the older rural and urban Chinese populations in Zhejiang province. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 30, 199–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of General Education DevelopmentDaffodil International UniversityDhakaBangladesh
  2. 2.Department of StatisticsShahjalal University of Science and TechnologySylhetBangladesh
  3. 3.The Graduate SchoolUniversity of West LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations