Ageing International

, Volume 44, Issue 3, pp 262–270 | Cite as

Psychosocial Factors and Leisure Perception of the Elder in Two Districts Central Java Indonesia

  • Ninik NurhidayahEmail author
  • Muchammad Syamsulhadi
  • Sapja Anantanyu
  • Ari Probandari


The number of elder population is increasing significantly around the globe. Leisure time is the activities that someone does in his or her spare time, it has to be fun and conducted outside from the daily routine activities. Unproductive leisure spending becomes issues for the elders. The aim of this research is to find psychosocial factors that related to the perception of leisure amongst the elders. The study was conducted with a cross-sectional design. This research was conducted in Karanganyar and Surakarta. Sampling technique used was multistage random sampling. The sample was 160 elders. The measurement was done by a test. The questionnaire was used as the research instruments. Data analysis techniques were used with multiple linear regression analysis. Characteristics of the sample were 62.5% female, age 60–75 years (elder) 80.6%, education level 42.5% primary school or equivalent, health status 51.9% healthy no diseased, 67.5% not working, 68% severe cognitive impairment, mild and moderate about 44.7%, and 73% have a high spirituality. The level of depression has positive effect on the perception of leisure amongst the elder as significantly (b = 0.24; p = 0.001), higher cognitive level influenced the perception of elders leisure (b = 0.05; p = 0.03), and spiritual level influence is not significant to perceptions elders leisure (b = 0.02; p = 0.136). Levels of depression, cognitive level and spiritual level affected perceptions elder leisure (Adjusted R = 0.09; p = 0.001). The rate of depression and cognitive level are the important predictors of the perception of the usage of leisure time. Future researches are recommended to explore the other factors that influence perceptions of the elder leisure.


Leisure Elder Depression Cognitive Spiritual 



We would like to thank the government of the local district of Karanganyar and Surakarta, and all the participants for taking part in this research. We would like to thank you to Eko Sumaryanto, M.OT for the valuable guidance and useful critiques on this paper.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that we have no conflict of interest.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Ethical Treatment of Experimental Subjects (Animal and Human)

All the procedures presented in the study of the Universitas Sebelas Maret Surakarta Indonesia. We got permission from the local government to carry out the research in his area. Ethical clearance got from committee ethic of medicine Faculty of Universitas Sebelas Maret Surakarta.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Doctoral Program in Community Development and Empowerment, Graduate SchoolUniversitas Sebelas MaretSurakartaIndonesia
  2. 2.Department of Occupational TherapySchool of Health PolytechnicsSurakartaIndonesia
  3. 3.Department of Psychiatri, Faculty of MedicineUniversitas Sebelas MaretSurakartaIndonesia
  4. 4.Department of Public Health, Faculty of MedicineUniversitas Sebelas MaretSurakartaIndonesia

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