Advertisement

Ageing International

, Volume 42, Issue 1, pp 62–77 | Cite as

Built Environment and Health Outcomes: Identification of Contextual Risk Factors for Mental Well-being of Older Adults

  • Ghuncha FirdausEmail author
Article

Abstract

The increasing proportion of elderly people is an emerging demographic trend globally. As the effect of the built environment on mental well-being of non-institutionalized older adults has been less studied, the present study tries to identify the risk factors in the built environment and its impact on the mental health of older adults. A questionnaire based cross-sectional survey was carried out to procure information from 1896 respondents nested within the households in Delhi, India. Nearly 28% of the respondents were reported for being depressed, followed by calm & peaceful (23.6%), emotionally stable (27.9%) and happy (20.5%). Indoor and outdoor environmental factors exhibited a significant graded relation with mental health. Depressed/downhearted mental condition was significantly related with overcrowding (OR = 2.9, p < 0.001), exposure to noise pollution (OR = 3.2, p < 0.001) and fear of crime (OR = 2.2, p < 0.001) after adjusting significant confounders. Whereas, living in low rise dwelling, better housing condition and healthy physical and social environment were demonstrated a significant impact on positive mental health, including emotionally stable (p < 0.01), peaceful & calm condition (p < 0.01) and happy (p < 0.001). The prevalence of depression in older adults in the study area was fairly high and a cause of concern. Features of the urban built environment are significant predictor of mental health and many of them have deleterious effects. Intensive research that integrates different parameters of the built environment and their impact on mental well-being across varying geographic scales and life stages is much needed.

Keywords

Delhi Built environment Mental health Older adult 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The author has declared that no competing interests exist.

Informed Consent

Informed verbal consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Ethical Treatment of Experimental Subjects (Animal and Human)

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by the author.

Funding Agency

The University Grants Commission has funded for the study. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis.

References

  1. Aspinall, P., Mavros, P., Coyne, R., & Roe, J. (2013). The urban brain: analysing outdoor physical activity with mobile EEG. British Journal of Sport Medicine. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2012-091877.Google Scholar
  2. Beekman, A. T., Deeg, D. J., van Tilburg, T., Smit, J. H., Hooijer, C., & van Tilburg, W. (1995). Major and minor depression in later life: a study of prevalence and risk factors. Journal of Affective Disorders, 36(1–2), 65–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bell, J. F., Wilson, J. S., & Liu, G. C. (2008). Neighborhood greenness and 2-year changes in body mass index of children and youth. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 35, 547–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Berman, M. G., Kross, E., Krpan, K. M., Askren, M. K., Burson, A., Deldin, P. J., Kaplan, S., Sherdell, L., Gotlib, I. H., & Jonides, J. (2012). Interacting with nature improves cognition and affect for individuals with depression. JAD, 140, 300–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Census of India. (2011). Population Composition, Chapt.2, p.11, http://www.censusindia.gov.in/vital_statistics/SRS_Report/9Chap%202%20-%202011.pdf.
  6. Chu, A., Thorne, A., & Guite, H. (2004). The impact on mental well-being of the urban and physical environment: an assessment of the evidence. Journal of Mental Health Promotion, 3(2), 17–32.Google Scholar
  7. Clarke, P., & Nieuwenhuijsen, E. R. (2009). Environments for healthy ageing: a critical review. Maturitas, 64(1), 14–9.Google Scholar
  8. Copeland, J. R. M., et al. (2004). Depression among older people in Europe: the EURODEP studies. World Psychiatry, 3(1), 45–49.Google Scholar
  9. Dadvand, P., de Nazelle, A., Figueras, F., Basagaña, X., Su, J., Amoly, E., Jerrett, M., Vrijheid, M., Sunyer, J., & Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J. (2012). Green space, health inequality and pregnancy. Environmental International, 40, 110–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dearry, A. (2004). Editorial: impacts of our built environment on public health. Environmental Health Perspectives, 112(11), A600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Evans, G. W., & Lepore, S. J. (1993). Household crowding and social support: a quasi-experimental analysis. Journal of Personal and Social Psychology, 65, 308–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Evans, G. W., Wells, N. M., & Moch, A. (2003). Housing and mental health: a review of the evidence and a methodological and conceptual critique. Journal of Social Issues, 59, 475–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Galea, S., Ahern, J., Rudenstine, S., Wallace, Z., & Vlahov, D. (2005). Urban built environment and depression: a multilevel analysis. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 59, 822–827. doi: 10.1136/jech.2005.033084.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Garin, N., Olaya, B., Perales, J., et al. (2014). Multimorbidity patterns in a national representative sample of the Spanish adult population. PLoS One, 9(1), 847–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gomez-Jacinto, L., & Hombrados-Mendieta, I. (2002). Multiple effects of community and household crowding. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 22, 233–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Grover, S., & Malhotra, N. (2015). Depression in elderly: a review of Indian Research. Journal of Geriatric Mental Health, 2(1), 4–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hale, C. (1996). Fear of crime: a review of the literature. International Review of Victimology, 4, 79–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Handy, S. L., Boarnet, M. G., Ewing, R., & Killingsworth, R. E. (2002). How the built environment affects physical activity: views from urban planning. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 23(2 Suppl), 64–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hartig, T. (2008). Green space, psychological restoration, and health inequality. Lancet, 372, 1614–1615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Howden-Chapman, P. L., Chandola, T., Stafford, M., & Marmot, M. (2011). The effect of housing on the mental health of older people: the impact of lifetime housing history in Whitehall II. BMC Public Health, 11, 682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jones, R. N., Marcantonio, E. R., & Rabinowitz, T. (2003). Prevalence and correlates of recognized depression in U.S. nursing homes. Journal of American Geriatrics Society, 51(10), 1404–1409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Killias, M., & Clerici, C. (2000). Different measures of vulnerability in their relation to different dimensions of fear of crime. British Journal of Criminology, 40, 437–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kim, J., & Kaplan, R. (2004). Physical and psychological factors in sense of community new urbanist Kentlands and nearby Orchard village. Environment and Behavior, 36, 313–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kirchberger, I., Meisinger, C., Heier, M., et al. (2012). Patterns of multimorbidity in the aged population. results from the KORA Age study. PLoS One, 7(1), 305–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Latkin, C. A., & Curry, A. D. (2003). Stressful neighborhoods and depression: a prospective study of the impact of neighborhood disorder. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 44, 34–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lercher, P., Evans, G. W., Meis, M., & Kofler, W. (2002). Ambient neighborhood noise and children’s mental health. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 59, 380–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Leventhal, T., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2003). Moving to opportunity: an experimental study of neighborhood effects on mental health. American Journal of Public Health, 93(9), 1576–1582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Maas, J., van Dillen, S. M. E., Verheij, R. A., & Groenewegen, P. P. (2009). Social contacts as a possible mechanism behind the relation between green space and health. Health & Place, 15, 586–595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Math, S. B., & Srinivasaraju, R. (2010). Indian Psychiatric epidemiological studies: learning from the past. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 52(Suppl1), S95–S103. doi: 10.4103/0019-5545.69220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Minicuci, N., Maggi, S., Pavan, M., Enzi, G., & Crepaldi, G. (2002). Prevalence rate and correlates of depressive symptoms in older individuals: the Veneto Study. Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences (Washington, DC), 57(3), M155–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mirza, I., & Jenkins, R. (2004). Risk factors, prevalence, and treatment of anxiety and depressive disorders in Pakistan: systematic review. BMJ, 328(7443), 794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mumford, D. B., Saeed, K., Ahmad, I., Latif, S., & Mubbashar, M. H. (1997). Stress and psychiatric disorder in rural Punjab. a community survey. British Journal of Psychiatry, 1997(170), 473–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Narendra, N. W. (2001). World health day. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 43(1), 1–4.Google Scholar
  34. National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation Government of India. Disabled Persons in India, NSS 58 th round (July - December 2002) Report No. 485 (58/26/1) December 2003, New Delhi. [Online] 2003. Available from: http://www.domain-b.com/economy/general/2005/pdf/Disability_in_India.pdf.
  35. Patel, V., & Prince, M. (2001). Ageing and mental health in a developing country: who cares? Qualitative studies from Goa, India. Psychological Medicine, 31, 29–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Prezza, M., Amici, M., Roberti, T., & Tedeschi, G. (2001). Sense of community referred to the whole town: its relations with neighboring, loneliness, life satisfaction, and area of residence. Journal of Community Psychology, 29, 29–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rangaswamy, S. M. (2001). WHO, World Health Report: Mental Health: New understanding New Hope (edit.). Geneva.Google Scholar
  38. Ravenscroft, N., Uzzell, D., & Leach, R. (2002). Danger ahead? The impact of fear of crime on people’s recreational use of nonmotorised shared-use routes. Environmental Planning C Government Policy, 20, 741–756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Reddy, M. V., & Chandrasekar, C. R. (1998). Prevalence of mental and behavioural disorders in India: a metaanalysis. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 40, 149–57.Google Scholar
  40. Ritchie, K., Artero, S., Beluche, I., et al. (2004). Prevalence of DSM-IV psychiatric disorder in the French elderly population. British Journal of Psychiatry, 184, 147–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Roe, J. J., Thompson, C. W., Aspinall, P. A., Brewer, M. J., Duff, E. I., Miller, D., Mitchell, R., & Clow, A. (2013). Green space and stress: evidence from cortisol measures in deprived urban communities. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 10, 4086–4103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Shah, A., Herbert, R., Lewis, S., Mahendran, R., Platt, J., & Bhattacharyya, B. (1997). Screening for depression among acutely ill geriatric inpatients with a short Geriatric Depression Scale. Age and Ageing, 26(3), 217–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Stankunas, M., Kalediene, R., Starkuviene, S., & Kapustinskiene, V. (2006). Duration of unemployment and depression: a cross-sectional survey in Lithuania. BMC Public Health, 6, 174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Stansfeld, S. A. (1993). Noise, noise sensitivity, and psychiatric disorder: epidemiological and psychophysiological studies. Psychological Medicine. Monograph Supplement, 22, 1–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Taqui, A. M., Itrat, A., Qidwai, W., & Zeeshan, Q. (2007). Depression in the elderly: does family system play a role? a cross-sectional study. BMC Psychiatry, 7, 57. doi: 10.1186/1471-244X-7-57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Taylor, A. F., & Kuo, F. E. (2009). Children with attention deficits concentrate better after walk in the park. JAD, 12, 402–409.Google Scholar
  47. United Nations. (2015). World Population Ageing 1950–2050, Magnitude and Speed of Population Ageing, Population Division, DESA, 11–13.Google Scholar
  48. Vieira, R. T., Caixeta, L., Machado, S., et al. (2013). Epidemiology of early onset dementia: a review of the literature. Clinical Practice Epidemiology Mental Health, 9, 88–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Weich, S., Burton, E., Blanchard, M., et al. (2001). Measuring the built environment: validity of a site survey instrument for use in urban settings. Health and Place, 7, 283–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Whitley, R., & Prince, M. (2005). Fear of crime, mobility and mental health in inner-city London. UK Social Science Medicine, 61, 1678–1688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. WHO. (2003). Mental health context, mental health policy and service guidance package. Geneva: Deptt. Mental health and substance abuses, WHO. http://www.who.int/mental_health/policy/services/3_context_WEB_07.pdf.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Madras Institute of Development StudiesChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations