Beyond the Anomaly: Where Piaget and Bruner Meet
The aim of this work is to focus on a basic concept in Brunerian narrative theory, that of violation of canonicity, showing how it relates to other basic concepts of cognitive theories such as anomaly, expectation and relationship between constancy and variability. To reach this aim, we will firstly discuss the Piagetian theory, in particular regarding the way in which the child deals with new and interesting events moved from the need to face and produce “spectacles interessantes” by means of experiencing the violation of canonicity. We will also briefly consider some results of neurosciences studies pointing out that the constancy-variability issue is at the base of human development. Secondly, we will show the convergence between Piagetian theory and Brunerian theory of narration, producing some examples of how violation of canonicity can occur in children and adults.
KeywordsNorm Violation Surprise Narrative development
Andrea Smorti has received a Research Grant from Regione Toscana POR 2014–2020.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
The Researchers complied with the ethical standards.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
All the mentioned studies were carried out in accordance with the ethical standards.
No human subjects were involved in the preparation of the article.
No animals were used or mentioned.
- Bornstein, M.H. (1984). A descriptive taxonomy of psychological categories used by infants, in C. Sophian (a cura di), Origins of Cognitive Skills. Hillsdale N.J., Erbaum., pp. 312–338.Google Scholar
- Bruner, J. (1962). On Knowing: Essays for the Left Hand, Harvard, Harvard University Press, On Knowing.Google Scholar
- Bruner, J. (1973). Beyond the information given: Studies in the psychology of knowing. New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
- Bruner, J. (1990). Acts of Meanings. New York: Hardvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Bruner, J. (2004). Life as narrative. Journal of Social Research, 3, 691–710.Google Scholar
- Bruner, J. S., & Sherwood, V. (1976). Early rule structure: The case of peekaboo. In J. S. Bruner, A. Jolly, K. Sylva (Eds.), Play: Its role in evolution and development. London, Penguin Books.Google Scholar
- Bruner, J., Jolly, A., & Silva, K. (1978), Play: its role in development and evolution, Harmondsworth, Penguin books;Google Scholar
- Burke, K. (1945). A grammar of motives. New York: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
- Cohen, L. B. (1991). Infant attention: An information processing approach. In M. J. Weiss & P. R. Zelazo (Eds.), Newborn Attention: biological constraints and the influence of the experience, Norwood. NJ (pp. 1–21). Ablex.Google Scholar
- Dissanayake, E. (2001). Becoming homo aestheticus:Sources of aesthetic imagination in mother-infant interactions, in Porter Abbott, H. (Ed.), On the origin of fictions: interdisciplinary perspective, “SubStance 94/95” vol. 30, 1, 2. Madison WI: University of Wisconsin Press, pp. 85–103;Google Scholar
- Fasulo, A. (2019). A different conversation: the autistic self and narrative psychology. (IPBS, 53, 3).Google Scholar
- Fivush, R., & Reese, E. (2002). Reminiscing and relating: The development of parent– Child talk about the past. In J. D. Webster & B. K. Haight (Eds.), Critical advances in reminiscence work: From theory to application (pp. 109–122). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- Gazzaniga, M. S. (1985). The social brain. New York: Basic Book.Google Scholar
- Graneist, A., & Habermas, T. (2019). Beyond the text given: Studying the scaffolding of narrative emotion regulation as a contribution to Bruner and Feldman's cultural cognitive developmental psychology (IPBS, 53, 3).Google Scholar
- Grazzani, I., & Brockmeier, J. (2019). Language games and social cognition: Revisiting Bruner (IPBS, 53, 3).Google Scholar
- Hudson, J. A., & Shapiro, L. R. (1991). From knowing to telling: The development of children’s scripts, stories, and personal narratives. Developing narrative structure, 89–136.Google Scholar
- Iannaccone, A. , Perret-Clermont, A.N., & Convertini J. (2019). Children as investigators of Brunerian “Possible worlds”. The role of narrative scenarios in children’s argumentative thinking. (IPBS, 53, 3).Google Scholar
- Labov, W. (1972). Language in the inner city: Studies in the black English vernacular (Vol. 3). University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
- Macchi Cassia V., Valenza, E., & Simion, F. (2004). Lo sviluppo cognitivo. Dalle teorie classiche ai nuovi orientamenti, Bologna: il Mulino.Google Scholar
- Piaget, J. (1936), La naissance de l’intelligance chez l’enfant, Neuchatel, Delachaux e Niestlé; trad. En the origin of the intelligence in children, New York: International university press 1952.Google Scholar
- Piaget, J. (1945). La formation du symbole chez l'enfant, Neuchatel, Delachaux e Niestlé; trad. En. Play, dream and imitation. London: Routledge, 1951.Google Scholar
- Salvatore, S. (2019). Beyond the meaning given. The meaning as Explanandum. (IPBS, 53, 3).Google Scholar
- Siegel, D.J. (1999), The developing mind: Toward a neurobiology of interpersonal experience, New York, Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Vygotsky, L.S. (1986). Thought and Language. Cambridge MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Wilson, E. O. (1998). Consilience. New York: Random House Inc..Google Scholar