A Dialogic Vaccine to Bridge Opposing Cultural Viewpoints Based on Bakhtin’s Views on Dialogue and Estrangement
- 80 Downloads
Today, we face global conflicts between opposing ideologies that may be described in terms of cultural viewpoints and value judgments. It is difficult for individuals to determine whether ideologies are right or wrong because each ideology has its own worldview and sense of justice. Psychologists have an urgent mission to defuse the likelihood of fatal clashes between opposing cultural perspectives (ideologies), and to propose paradigms for peaceful coexistence. This paper examines the series of papers (Oh, Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, 51, 2017; Sakakibara, Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, 51, 2017; Watanabe, Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science, 51, 2017) contributed to this volume that investigate the effects of high school and university educational programs promoting productive dialogue aimed at bridging, or transcending, conflicting perspectives among Japanese, Chinese, and Korean students. Here, I have evaluated the capacity of these educational programs to coordinate opposing cultural ideologies using the framework of Bakhtin’s theories of dialogue and estrangement. Bakhtin viewed discourse with others who had opposing viewpoints as an opportunity to learn to overcome the one-sidedness of ideology, which ensues from automatic value judgments made by each speaker according to their culture, and he affirmed the value of flexible attitudes toward opposing viewpoints. In this paper, I review Bakhtin’s theories relating to communication in a context of different cultural viewpoints, assess the general values of the educational practices mentioned above, and propose new concepts for applying these methods to other educational fields in the future using Bakhtin’s theoretical viewpoints.
KeywordsIntercultural communications Dialogue Estrangement Dialogic vaccine
This work was supported by KAKENHI Grant Number JP26780353 from The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) / Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
This article does not describe any study with human participants performed by the authors.
- Bakhtin, M. M. (1981). The dialogic imagination: four essays by M.M. Bakhtin. In M. Holquist (Ed.), (trans: Emerson, C. & Holquist, M.). Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
- Bakhtin, M. M. (1984a). Problems of Dostoevsky’s poetics. In C. Emerson (Ed.), (trans: Emerson, C.). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
- Bakhtin, M.M. (1984b). Rabelais and his world (trans: Iswolsky, H.). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
- Bakhtin, M. M. (1986). Speech genres and other late essays. In C. Emerson & M. Holquist (Eds.), (trans: McGee, V. W.). Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
- Bakhtin, M. M. (1990). Art and answerability: early philosophical essays by M.M. Bakhtin. In M. Holquist & V. Liapunov (Eds.), (trans: Liapunov, V.). Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
- Billig, M. (2008). The hidden roots of critical psychology: understanding the impact of Locke, Shaftesbury and Reid. Los Angeles: Sage.Google Scholar
- Brandist, C., & Lähteenmäki, M. (2010). Early soviet linguistics and Mikhail Bakhtin’s essays on the novel of the 1930s. In C. Brandist & K. Chown (Eds.), Politics and the theory of language in the USSR 1917–1938: the birth of sociological linguistics (pp. 69–88). London: Anthem Press.Google Scholar
- Clark, K., & Holquist, M. (1984). Mikhail Bakhtin. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Dostoevsky, F. (1956). Crime and punishment (trans: Garnett, C.). New York: Random House.Google Scholar
- Jakubinskij, L. P. (1917). Skoplenie odinakovyx plavnyx v praktiéeskom i poetiéeskom jazykax. Sborniki po teorii poétiéeskogo jazyka, 2, 15–23.Google Scholar
- Kaiser, W. (1973). Wisdom of the fool. In P. P. Wiener (Ed.), Dictionary of the history of ideas: studies of selected pivotal ideas volume IV (pp. 515–520). New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.Google Scholar
- Morson, G. S., & Emerson, C. (1990). Mikhail Bakhtin: creation of a prosaics. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
- Oh, S., (2017). Dialogical exchange class using movies for mutual understanding between a Korean and a Japanese university. Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science. doi:10.1007/s12124-017-9392-8.
- Plato. (1924). Laches; Protagoras; Meno; Euthydemus (trans: Lamb, W.R.M.). Cambridge: Harvard University Press., & London: W. Heinemann Ltd.Google Scholar
- Plato. (1925). Lysis; Symposium; Gorgias (trans: Lamb, W.R.M.). Cambridge: Harvard University Press., & London: W. Heinemann Ltd.Google Scholar
- Sakakibara, T. (2017). Intercultural understanding through intergroup dialogue between Japanese and Chinese university students. Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science. doi:10.1007/s12124-017-9390-x.
- Shklovsky, V. (1990). Theory of prose (trans: Sher, B.). Champaign: Dalkey Archive Press.Google Scholar
- Vološinov, V.N. (1986). Marxism and the philosophy of language (trans: Matejka, L. & Titunik, I.R.). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Watanabe, T. (2017). The story-presenting method: A method for constructing multiple viewpoints to understand different cultures. Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science. doi:10.1007/s12124-017-9391-9.