Using Samples-of-Opportunity to Assess Gender Bias in Principal Evaluations of Teachers: A Cautionary Tale
This paper uses two “samples-of-opportunity” datasets to examine whether principal evaluations of teachers differ systematically across genders after controlling for arguably gender unbiased measures of teacher productivity---namely value-added student test scores calculated relative to other teachers in the same grade/school (where teachers are randomly allocated to classrooms within the same grade/school). While the two datasets appear to be quite similar in nature, both were samples-of-opportunity in that they were not representative of any particular population. Our findings differ substantially across datasets. This exercise reveals how results in the education and discrimination literature may be sensitive to the sample used.
KeywordsDiscrimination Teacher quality Principal ratings External validity
JEL ClassificationJ71 J16 I21
Compliance with Ethical Standards
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (2013) Measures of effective teaching, ICPSR34771-v2. Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research, Ann ArborGoogle Scholar
- Blau FD, Ferber MA, Winkler AE (2010) The economics of women, men, and work, 6th edn. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle RiverGoogle Scholar
- Coate S, Loury G (1993) Will affirmative action eliminate negative stereotypes? Am Econ Rev 83(5):1220–1240Google Scholar
- Cross H, Kenney G, Mell J, Zimmerman W (1990) Employer hiring practices: differential treatment of Hispanic and Anglo job seekers. Urban Institute report 90–4. The Urban Institute, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
- Goldberger A (1991) A course in econometrics. Harvard University Press, CambrigdeGoogle Scholar
- Hanna R, Linden L (2012) Discrimination in grading. Am Econ J Econ Pol 4(4):145–168Google Scholar
- Institute of Educational Sciences (2009) Teachers trained through Differet routes of certification (TTTDR). Private use data fileGoogle Scholar
- Turner MA, Fix M, Struyk R (1991) Opportunities denied, opportunities diminished: racial discrimination in hiring. Urban Institute report 91–9. The Urban Institute, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
- Yinger J (1986) Measuring racial discrimination with fair housing audits: caught in the act. Am Econ Rev 76(5):881–893Google Scholar