Compulsory Schooling and Early Labor Market Outcomes in a Middle-Income Country
- 120 Downloads
The 1997 reform in Turkey which extended compulsory schooling from 5 to 8 years provides an opportunity to estimate the returns to schooling in a middle-income country. The availability of a rich set of early labor market variables also provides an opportunity to assess mechanisms through which returns to schooling occur. I find quite small effects of compulsory schooling on earnings of men but large positive effects on earnings of women who work, without raising their overall low rate of labor force participation. In terms of mechanisms, I find that women who worked moved into higher skill and formal sector jobs, which involved more complicated tasks on average.
KeywordsReturns to education Compulsory schooling Occupational choice
JEL ClassificationI21 J24 J31
I would like to thank to Sarah Turner, Leora Friedberg, and John Pepper. I also thank seminar participants at the University of Virginia and Southern Economic Association Conference. I am grateful to the editor and two anonymous referees for very useful suggestions and careful reading. I am also grateful to the University of Virginia’s Bankard Fund for financial support and the staff in the Labor Force Statistics Department of Turkish Statistical Institute for providing the supplementary data for Household Labor Force Survey.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
I have no potential conflict of interest that relate to the research described in this paper. Also the views expressed here are my own and do not necessarily reflect those of the Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey.
- Aydemir A, Kirdar M (2013) Estimates of the return to schooling in a developing country: evidence from a major policy reform in Turkey. Working Paper no 51938. MPRAGoogle Scholar
- Becker GS (1967) Human capital and the personal distribution of income; an analytical approach. Institute of Public Administration, Ann ArborGoogle Scholar
- Card D (1999) The causal effect of education on earnings. Handbook of labor economics, vol 3, pp 1801–1863Google Scholar
- Cesur R, Mocan N (2014) Does secular education impact religiosity, electoral participation, and the propensity to vote for Islamic parties? Evidence from an education reform in a Muslim country. Working Paper no. 19769. National Bureau of Economic Research, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
- Cesur R, Dursun B, Mocan N (2014) The impact of education health and health behavior in a middle income, low education country. Working Paper no. 20764. National Bureau of Economic Research, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
- Devereux PJ, Hart RA (2009) Forced to be rich? Returns to compulsory schooling in Britain. Working Paper no. 2009/40. University College DublinGoogle Scholar
- Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) Revised Fourth Edition (1991) United States employment service, and the North Carolina occupational analysis field center. Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research, Ann Arbor. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR06100.v1
- Dulger I (2004) Case study on Turkey rapid coverage for compulsory education program. Paper presented at the Conference on Scaling up Poverty Reduction, Shanghai, ChinaGoogle Scholar
- Dursun B, Cesur R, Kelly IR (2017) The value of mandating maternal education in a developing country. Louisiana State University Working PaperGoogle Scholar
- Erten B, Keskin P (2016) For better or for worse? Education and the prevalence of domestic violence in Turkey. Am Econ J Appl Econ ForthcomingGoogle Scholar
- Gulesci S, Meyersson E (2014) ‘For the love of the republic’ education, secularism and empowerment in Turkey. Working Paper, http://goo.gl/Vncpq
- Harmon C, Walker I (1995) Estimates of the economic return to schooling for the United Kingdom. Am Econ Rev 85(5):1278–1286Google Scholar
- Kırdar MG, Koç İ, Tayfur MD (2016) The effect of compulsory schooling laws on teenage marriage and births in Turkey. Working Paper no 72119. MPRAGoogle Scholar
- Mocan L (2014) The impact of education on wages: analysis of an education reform in Turkey. Unpublished Working PaperGoogle Scholar
- Stephens M Jr, Yang D-Y (2012) Schooling laws, school quality, and the returns to schooling. Working Paper. University of MichiganGoogle Scholar