Journal of Labor Research

, Volume 34, Issue 2, pp 147–169 | Cite as

Do ENDAs End Discrimination for Behaviorally Gay Men?

  • Michael E. Martell


Twenty-two states have implemented state Employment Nondiscrimination Acts (ENDAs) making sexual orientation discrimination illegal, and Congress has repeatedly considered a federal ENDA. However, we know very little about the impact of existing ENDAs and the likely impact of future ENDAs. I describe the implementation of ENDAs and highlight their shortcomings relative to federal employment nondiscrimination law. Despite their shortcomings, I show that state ENDAs decrease wage differentials by roughly 20 % for behaviorally gay men. ENDAs appear to reduce this wage differential by reducing the portion of wage differentials typically associated with discrimination. These results inform a contemporary policy debate over the necessity and impact of expanded protection from discrimination for gay men. (JEL J1, J3, J7)


Sexual orientation discrimination Employment nondiscrimination act Wage differentials 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.WashingtonUSA

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