Equal Opportunity Objectification? The Sexualization of Men and Women on the Cover of Rolling Stone
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A number of journalists and scholars have pointed to the sexual objectification of women and men in popular media to argue that Western culture has become “sexualized” or even “pornified.” Yet it is not clear whether men or women have become more frequently—or more intensely sexualized—over time. In a longitudinal content analysis of images of women and men on more than four decades of Rolling Stone magazine covers (1967–2009), we begin to answer such questions. Using a unique analytical framework that allows us to measure both the frequency and intensity of sexualization, we find that sexualized images of men and women have increased, though women continue to be more frequently sexualized than men. Yet our most striking finding is the change in how women—but not men—are sexualized. Women are increasingly likely to be “hypersexualized,” but men are not. These findings not only document changes in the sexualization of men and women in popular culture over time, they also point to a narrowing of the culturally acceptable ways for “doing” femininity as presented in popular media.
KeywordsSexual socialization Sexualization Gender Media Popular culture
We are grateful to the Editor and anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments. We also wish to thank Samantha Kwan and Elizabeth Borland for feedback on an earlier draft of this article, and Paul Durlak and Sarah Glann for research assistance.
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