Conceptualising and combating transnational environmental crime
- 1.8k Downloads
To date, transnational environmental crime has been poorly attended to by the transnational organised crime and transnational policing discourse. Academics have focused on individual elements of environmental crime, neglecting a broader theoretical discussion, while national and international institutions have prioritised other forms of organised crime, giving little thought to the nuanced nature of transnational environmental crime and how this should be reflected in policing and countermeasures. This paper attempts to rectify this by conceptualising transnational environmental crime and suggesting ways forward for countermeasure development. The paper will begin by looking at the problem of environmental crime, its value, scope and effects, concluding that the damaging nature of transnational environmental crime demands a greater focus on its policing. The nature of transnational environmental crime will then be discussed by reference to traditional forms of organised crime. It will be argued that, while transnational environmental crime is a form of organised crime, and has some features in common with the traditional organised crimes, such as drug smuggling and people trafficking, it is the substantial differences that should guide the approach to developing countermeasures. The development of effective countermeasures, it is concluded, requires a significant change in policy at every level.
KeywordsTransnational environmental crime Transnational policing Conceptualising environmental crime Countermeasures Demand reduction Supply reduction
- ASEAN Wildlife Enforcement Network, About Us.Available viaASEAN website.http://www.asean-wen.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=47&Itemid=55.Cited 7 March 2011.
- Banks D et al (2007) Upholding the Law: The Challenge of Effective Enforcement. EIA, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Baumüller H, Brack D, Umpfenbach K (2009) Keeping Illegal Fish and Timber off the Market: A Comparison of EU Regulations. Chatham House, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Blindell J (2006) 21st Century policing - The role of police in the detection, investigation and prosecution of environmental crime.ACPR Issues 2.Google Scholar
- Brack D (2007) Controlling Trade: Tracking, Detection and Border Controls. In:The Growth and Control of International Environmental Crime. Chatham House, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Brack D (2009) Combatting international environmental crime. In: White (ed)Environmental Crime: a reader. Willan Publishing, Devon.Google Scholar
- Brack D, Hayman G (2001) Intergovernmental Actions on Illegal Logging: Options for intergovernmental action to help combat illegal logging and illegal trade in timber and forest products. UK Department for International Development, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Bricknell S (2010) Environmental crime in Australia. Australian Institute of Criminology, CanberraGoogle Scholar
- Cisneros-Montemayor A et al (2010) The Global Potential for Whale Watching. University of British Columbia Fisheries Centre, VancouverGoogle Scholar
- Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (2010) Expert consultation on the use of the Convention for combating emerging forms of crime.Item 5 of the provisional agenda for the Fifth session.CTOC/COP/2010/3.Google Scholar
- EIA (2007) Upholding the Law: The Challenge of Effective Enforcement. EIA, LondonGoogle Scholar
- EIA (2008) Environmental Crime – Our Planet, Our Problem. EIA, LondonGoogle Scholar
- European Parliament (2002) Recommendation on the reform of the conventions on drugs.B50541/2002.Google Scholar
- Farrell G (1998) A global empirical review of drug crop eradication and United Nations’ crop substitution and alternative development strategies. J Drug Issues 28(2):395–436Google Scholar
- Four Corners (2002) The Timber Mafia. ABC TV.Transcript available online.http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/content/2002/timber_mafia/webextras/transcript.htm.Cited 01 November 2010.
- Fröhlich T (2003) Organised environmental crime in the EU Member States. BfU, KasselGoogle Scholar
- Gray J (2001) Why our drug laws have failed and what we can do about it: a judicial indictment of the War on Drugs. Temple University Press, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
- Hayman G, Brack D (2002) International Environmental Crime: the nature and control of environmental black markets. Royal Institute of International Affairs, LondonGoogle Scholar
- International Network for Environmental Compliance and Enforcement (2009) Principles of Environmental Compliance and Enforcement Handbook.Google Scholar
- Interpol (2009)Environmental Crime Programme: Strategic Action Plan.Google Scholar
- Interpol, Pollution Crimes Working Group (2006) Assessing the Links between Organised Crime and Pollution Crimes’.Google Scholar
- Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs (1988)Special Issue: Assessing the Americas’ War on Drugs.Google Scholar
- Lauterback A (2005) Opening remarks.Interpol Environmental Crimes Committee 5th International Conference on Environmental Crime, Lyon.Google Scholar
- Legambiente (2007) RapportoEcomafia: i numeri e le storiedellacriminalitàambientale. EdizioniAmbiente, MilanGoogle Scholar
- Snowdon K (2009) UN report warns Afghanistan must control drugs trade.ABC Radio. Transcript available at http://www.radioaustralia.net.au/asiapac/stories/200909/s2677265.htm. Cited 7 March 2011.
- Thompson J, Kanaan R (2003) Final Report Submitted to the United States Agency for International Development, Conflict Timber: Dimensions of the Problem in Asia and Africa; Volume I Synthesis Report. ARD, Inc, BurlingtonGoogle Scholar
- UN (2010) Draft Salvador Declaration on Comprehensive Strategies for Global Challenges: Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Systems and Their Development in a Changing World. Twelfth Congress on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice, Salvador, Brazil. A/CONF.213/L.6/Rev.2.Google Scholar
- UN Environment Programme (2007) Illegal Trade in Ozone Depleting Substances: Asia and Pacific Region. UN, NairobiGoogle Scholar
- UN Office on Drugs and Crime (2009) Organised Crime and Trafficking in Eastern Africa: A Discussion Paper. UN, NairobiGoogle Scholar
- UN Office on Drugs and Crime. Human trafficking: the facts. http://www.unodc.org/documents/blueheart/Fact_sheet_english.pdf. Cited 4 November 2010.
- White R (2009) Environmental Crime: a reader. Willan Publishing, DevonGoogle Scholar
- Wisotsky S (1986) Breaking the Impasse in the War on Drugs. Greenwood Publishing, WestportGoogle Scholar
- Zimmerman M (2003) The Black Market for Wildlife: Combating Transnational Organized Crime in the Illegal Wildlife Trade. Vanderbilt J Int Law 36:1657–1689Google Scholar