Trends in Organized Crime

, Volume 8, Issue 3, pp 24–40 | Cite as

Representations and misrepresentations of human trafficking

  • Galma JahicEmail author
  • James O. Finckenauer


This paper examines how the trafficking issue has been defined by various stakeholders, the public and governments, and how these various definitions of the problem may have influenced current trafficking policies. Has the issue of trafficking become politicized and its definitions “stretched” by stakeholders? Have special interest groups, and sometimes governments as well, exploited the trafficking problem to support particular agendas? Are the victims of trafficking always the primary concern, or are other issues pushed forward at their expense? To address these questions, we examine the different approaches to trafficking and the data used to support the various claims and positions.


Organize Crime Asylum Seeker Sexual Exploitation Human Trafficking Illegal Immigrant 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bales, K. Disposable People: New Slavery in the Global Economy, Berkley, CA: University of California Press, 2000.Google Scholar
  2. Bertone, A.M. “Sexual Trafficking in Women: International Political Economy and the Politics of Sex,” Gender Issues 18 (2000): 4–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bruinsma, G.J.N. and G. Meershoek. “Organized Crime and Trafficking in Women from Eastern Europe in the Netherlands,” Transnational Organized Crime 3 (1999): 105–119.Google Scholar
  4. Brussa, L. “Survey on Prostitution, Migration and Traffic in Women: History and Current Situation,” Document EG/PROST (91) 2 (1991). Seminar on action against traffic in women and forced prostitution and violations of human rights and human dignity, Council of Europe, European Committee for Equality between Men and Women.Google Scholar
  5. Caldwell, G., S. Galster, and N. Steinzor. Crime and servitude: An Expose of the Trafficking in Women for Prostitution from the Newly Independent States, Washington, D.C.: Global Survival Network (1997).Google Scholar
  6. —. “Capitalizing on Transition Economies: The Role of the Russian Mafiya in Trafficking Women for Forced Prostitution,” Transnational Organized Crime 3 (1999): 42–73.Google Scholar
  7. Council of Europe. “Traffic in Women and Forced Prostitution in Council of Europe Member States,” Document 7785, Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (1997). From http://, last accessed on January 10,2005.Google Scholar
  8. Derks, A. “Combating Trafficking in South-East Asia: A Review of Policy and Programme Responses,” IOM Migration Research Series, Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Migration (2000).Google Scholar
  9. Ditmore, M. “Addressing Sex Work as Labor,” Presentation to the United Nations Working Group on Contemporary Forms of Slavery (1999). From, last accessed on January 10, 2005.Google Scholar
  10. Europol. “Trafficking in Human Beings: General Situation Report,” Open Version 1999. Document Number: 2565-35revl, The Hague, The Netherlands: Europol (2000).Google Scholar
  11. Europol. “Crime Assessment: Trafficking of Human Beings into the European Union,” Open Version, Document Number: 2565-43, The Hague, The Netherlands: Europol (2001).Google Scholar
  12. Galiana, C. “Trafficking in Women,” European Parliament, Directorate-General for Research, Civil Liberties Series: LIBE 109 EN, Brussels, Belgium: The European Parliament (2000).Google Scholar
  13. International Labor Organization. “Forced Labour, Child Labour and Human Trafficking in Europe: An ILO perspective,” paper presented at EU/IOM STOP “European Conference on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Human Beings,” September 18–20, 2002, Brussels, Belgium.Google Scholar
  14. International Organization for Migration. “Trafficking of Women to the European Union: Characteristics, Trends, and Policy Issues,” paper submitted to the Conference on Trafficking in Women for Sexual Exploitation, Vienna, June 1996. In Council of Europe, “Traffic in Women and Forced Prostitution in Council of Europe Member States. Document 775,” Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, 1997. From edoc7785.htm, last accessed on January 10, 2005.Google Scholar
  15. International Organization for Migration. “Trafficking in Migrants: IOM Policy and Responses,” Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Migration, 1999.Google Scholar
  16. Kelly, L. and L. Regan. “Stopping traffic: Exploring the Extent of, and Responses to, Trafficking in Women for Sexual Exploitation,” in the UK. Police Research Series, Paper 125. London, UK: Home Office, 2000.Google Scholar
  17. Lucas, R.E.B. “International Migration: Economic Causes, Consequences, and Evaluation,” in Mary M. Kritz, Charles B. Keely, and Silvano M. Tomasi (eds.), Global Trends in Migration: Theory and Research on International Population Movements, Staten Island, NY: The Center for Migration Studies, N.Y., 1981.Google Scholar
  18. Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons. “Trafficking in Persons Report 2001,” U.S. Department of State 2002. From, last accessed on January 10, 2005.Google Scholar
  19. O'Neill Richard, A.“International Trafficking in Women to United States: AContemporary Manifestation of Slavery and Organized Crime,” DCI Exceptional Intelligence Analyst Program, Washington, D.C.: Center for the Study of Intelligence, 1999.Google Scholar
  20. Raymond, J.G. “Testimony Submitted to the Hearings on Trafficking, Sub-Committee on International Operations and Human Rights,” September 14, 1999 From Catw/readingroom.shtml?sh_itm=cabe989c4188195c4ale2d40e7d24813 , last accessed on January 10, 2005.Google Scholar
  21. Raymond, J. and D.M. Hughes. “Sex Trafficking of Women in the United States: International and Domestic Trends,” North Amherst, MA: Coalition Against Trafficking in Women, 2001.Google Scholar
  22. United Nations, Economic and Social Council. “History of International Law Relating to Trafficking,” in: Integration of the Human Rights of Women and the Gender Perspective, Document E/CN.4/ 2000/68, Fifty-fifth session, February 29, 2000, Commission on Human Rights. From http://, last accessed on January 10, 2005.Google Scholar
  23. United Nations Fund for Population Activities, “State of the World's Population, 2000,” from http://, last accessed on September 24, 2002.Google Scholar
  24. U.S. Agency for International Development, Trafficking in Persons: USAID's response. Washington, D.C.: USAID (2004). From, last accessed January 10, 2005.Google Scholar
  25. U.S. Department of State, “Powell Presents 2002 Trafficking in Persons Report: 89 Countries Surveyed, 14 Improve,” June 5, 2002. From , last accessed on January 10, 2005.Google Scholar
  26. Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000. Pub. L. No. 106-386, 114 Stat. 1464. 2000.Google Scholar
  27. Widgren, J. “Multilateral Co-operation to Combat Trafficking in Migrants and the Role of International Organizations,” Vienna, Austria: International Centre for Migration Policy Development, 1994.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Law SchoolIstanbul Bilgi UniversityDolapdereIstanbul

Personalised recommendations