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Studies in Comparative International Development

, Volume 44, Issue 4, pp 359–385 | Cite as

Enclaves and Development: An Empirical Assessment

  • Jonathan H. ConningEmail author
  • James A. Robinson
Article

Abstract

In this paper we investigate empirically whether or not the notion of an enclave adds substantially to existing knowledge of the determinants of long-run economic, political, or institutional development. We discuss the prominent place of enclaves in historical accounts in the dependent development literature, particularly in the work of Cardoso and Faletto (1966, 1979) and the large difficulties of determining in practice whether or not a country was or was not an enclave. We find little evidence for a relationship between past enclave status and long-run growth, inequality, or the size of the government. However, there does seem to be some preliminary evidence that countries that were enclaves have greater state capacity than non-enclaves and have been less democratic in the post-WWII period.

Keywords

Growth Dependency theory Comparative development 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to María Alejandra Palacio for her outstanding research assistance and to María Angélica Bautista for help with the data. We also thank two anonymous referees and seminar participants at the Watson Institute’s conference on Dependency and Development in Latin America after 40 Years, particularly Peter Evans, Patrick Heller, Terry Karl, Dietrich Rueschemeyer, and Richard Snyder. Financial support from the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research is gratefully acknowledged.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Economics, Hunter College and The Graduate CenterCity University of New YorkNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of Government and IQSSHarvard UniversityCambridgeUSA

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