Studies in Comparative International Development

, Volume 44, Issue 4, pp 359–385 | Cite as

Enclaves and Development: An Empirical Assessment

  • Jonathan H. ConningEmail author
  • James A. Robinson


In this paper we investigate empirically whether or not the notion of an enclave adds substantially to existing knowledge of the determinants of long-run economic, political, or institutional development. We discuss the prominent place of enclaves in historical accounts in the dependent development literature, particularly in the work of Cardoso and Faletto (1966, 1979) and the large difficulties of determining in practice whether or not a country was or was not an enclave. We find little evidence for a relationship between past enclave status and long-run growth, inequality, or the size of the government. However, there does seem to be some preliminary evidence that countries that were enclaves have greater state capacity than non-enclaves and have been less democratic in the post-WWII period.


Growth Dependency theory Comparative development 



We are grateful to María Alejandra Palacio for her outstanding research assistance and to María Angélica Bautista for help with the data. We also thank two anonymous referees and seminar participants at the Watson Institute’s conference on Dependency and Development in Latin America after 40 Years, particularly Peter Evans, Patrick Heller, Terry Karl, Dietrich Rueschemeyer, and Richard Snyder. Financial support from the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research is gratefully acknowledged.


  1. Acemoglu D, Johnson S. Unbundling institutions. J Polit Econ. 2005;113:949–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Acemoglu D, Johnson S, Robinson JA. The colonial origins of comparative development: an empirical investigation. Am Econ Rev. 2001;91:1369–401.Google Scholar
  3. Acemoglu D, Johnson S, Robinson JA. Reversal of fortune: geography and institutions in the making of the modern world income distribution. Q J Econ. 2002;118:1231–94.Google Scholar
  4. Acemoglu D, Johnson S, Robinson JA. Institutions as fundamental determinants of long-run growth. In: Aghion P, Durlauf S, editors. The handbook of economic growth, vol. 1A. Amsterdam: North-Holland; 2005. p. 385–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Acemoglu D, Johnson S, Robinson JA, Yared P. 2007. Reevaulating the modernization hypothesis. NBER Working Paper #13334.
  6. Acemoglu D, Johnson S, Robinson JA, Yared P. Income and democracy. Am Econ Rev. 2008;98:808–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Acemoglu D, Robinson JA. Economic origins of dictatorship and democracy. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2006.Google Scholar
  8. Baier S. An economic history of central Niger. New York: Oxford University Press; 1980.Google Scholar
  9. Bulmer-Thomas V. The economic history of Latin America since Independence. 2nd ed. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2003.Google Scholar
  10. Cardoso FH, Faletto E. Dependencia y Desarrollo en America Latina, Mexico: Siglo Veintiuno Editores; 1966.Google Scholar
  11. Cardoso FH, Faletto E. Dependency and development in Latin America. Berkeley: University of California Press; 1979.Google Scholar
  12. Clarence-Smith WG. Slaves, peasants and capitalists in Southern Angola, 1840–1926. New York: Cambridge University Press; 1979.Google Scholar
  13. Chase-Dunn C. The effects of international economic dependence on development and inequality: a cross-national study. Am Sociol Rev. 1975;40:720–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Diaz-Alejandro CF. Review of dependency and development in Latin America. J Econ Hist. 1979;39:804–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Engerman SL, Sokoloff KL. Factor endowments, institutions, and differential paths of growth among new world economies. In: Haber SH, editor. How Latin America fell behind. Stanford: Stanford University Press; 1997.Google Scholar
  16. Engerman SL, Sokoloff KL. The evolution of suffrage institutions in the new world. J Econ Hist. 2005;65:891–921.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Evans PB Embedded autonomy. Princeton: Princeton University Press; 1995.Google Scholar
  18. Evans PB, Timberlake M. Dependence, inequality, and the growth of the tertiary: a comparative analysis of less developed countries. Am Sociol Rev. 1980;45:531–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Evans PB, Rauch JE. Bureaucracy and growth: a cross-national analysis of the effects of ‘Weberian’ state structures on economic growth. Am Sociol Rev. 1999;64:748–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Evans PB, Rauch JE. Bureaucratic structure and bureaucratic performance in less developed countries. J Public Econ. 2000;75:49–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hall RE, Jones CI. Why do some countries produce so much more output per worker than others? Q J Econ. 1999;114:83–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Heston A, Summers R, Aten B. Penn world tables version 6.1. Philadelphia: Center for International Comparisons at the University of Pennsylvania (CICUP); 2002.Google Scholar
  23. Hill P. The migrant cocoa-farmers of southern Ghana; a study in rural capitalism. New York: Cambridge University Press; 1963.Google Scholar
  24. Hirschman AO. The strategy of economic development. New Haven: Yale University Press; 1958.Google Scholar
  25. Hojman DE. From Mexican plantations to Chilean mines: the theoretical and empirical relevance of enclave theories in contemporary Latin America. Centre for Latin American Studies, University of Liverpool; 1983.Google Scholar
  26. Klein HS. Bolivia: the evolution of a multi-ethnic society. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press; 1991.Google Scholar
  27. Mitchell BR International historical statistics: the Americas 1750–2000. Basingstoke: Macmillan; 2003a.Google Scholar
  28. Mitchell BR International historical statistics: Africa, Asia and Oceania 1750–2000. Basingstoke: Macmillan; 2003b.Google Scholar
  29. North DC, Thomas RP. The rise of the Western World: a new economic history. New York: Cambridge University Press; 1973.Google Scholar
  30. Paige JM. Coffee and power: revolution and the rise of democracy in Central America. Cambridge: Harvard University Press; 1997.Google Scholar
  31. Pankhurst R. Economic history of Ethiopia 1800–1935. Addis Ababa: Haile Sellassie I University Press; 1968.Google Scholar
  32. Platt DCM, editor. Business imperialism, 1840–1930: an inquiry based on British experience in Latin America. Oxford: Clarendon; 1977.Google Scholar
  33. Rodney W. How Europe underdeveloped Africa. Washington: Howard University Press; 1974.Google Scholar
  34. Roseberry W. Coffee and capitalism in the Venezuelan Andes. Austin: University of Texas Press; 1983.Google Scholar
  35. Szereszewski R. Structural changes in the economy of Ghana, 1891–1911. London: Weindefield and Nicolson; 1965.Google Scholar
  36. Williams RG. States and social evolution: coffee and the rise of National Governments in Central America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press; 1994.Google Scholar
  37. Winson A. Coffee and democracy in Modern Costa Rica. New York: St. Martin’s; 1989.Google Scholar
  38. World Bank. A decade of measuring the quality of governance. Washington, DC: World Bank; 2006.Google Scholar
  39. Yarrington D. A coffee frontier: land, society, and politics in Duaca, Venezuela, 1830–1936. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press; 1997.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Economics, Hunter College and The Graduate CenterCity University of New YorkNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of Government and IQSSHarvard UniversityCambridgeUSA

Personalised recommendations