Journal of African American Studies

, Volume 17, Issue 2, pp 206–221 | Cite as

Are African-American Male Undergraduate Retention Programs Successful? An Evaluation of an Undergraduate African-American Male Retention Program



Research indicates an alarming trend of African-American male students failing to graduate once enrolled in colleges and universities (National Center for Education Statistics 2011). In response to this problem, various universities have implemented academic programs to provide support and retention for these students. This study examines a retention program with Freshmen African-American male students in a large metropolitan university. Specifically, this article seeks to highlight the impact of retention programs on African-American male students successfully completing their first year of college. Results from a mixed method design suggest that retention programs have a positive impact on African-American male academics, with specificity to increased grade point averages.


African American Male Retention programs CLD students 


  1. Allen, W. R. (1992). The color of success: African American college student outcomes at predominantly white and historically black public colleges and universities. Harvard Educational Review, 62, 26–44.Google Scholar
  2. Baum, S., & Payea. K. ( 2005). The benefits of higher education for individuals and society. New York: College Entrance Exam BoardGoogle Scholar
  3. Bourte, G. S. (1992). Frustrations of an African-American parent—a personal and professional account. Phi Delta Kappan, 73, 786–788.Google Scholar
  4. Brooks, M., & Steen, S. (2010). “Brother where art thou? “African American male instructors' perceptions of the counselor education profession. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 38(3), 142–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2010, September). Back to college. US Department of Labor. Accessed March 2011
  6. Burt, I., & Butler, S. K. (2011). Capoeira as a clinical intervention: addressing adolescent aggression with Brazilian martial arts. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 39(1), 48–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bush, E. & L. Bush (2010). Calling out the elephant: An examination of African American male achievement in community colleges. Journal of African American Males in Education, 1, 40–62.Google Scholar
  8. Carini, R. M., Kuh, G. D., & Klein, S. P. (2006). Student Engagement and Student Learning. Research in Higher Education, 47, 1–32.Google Scholar
  9. Childs, G., Jones, R., Nugent, K. E., & Cook, P. (2004). Retention of African-American students in baccalaureate nursing programs: are we doing enough? Journal of Professional Nursing, 20(2), 129–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chronicle of Higher Education. (2009, August 24). Degrees conferred by racial and ethnic group. Almanac of Higher Education. Accessed 21 Feb 2011
  11. Cohen, C. J., & Nee, C. E. (2000). Educational attainment and sex differentials in African American communities. The American Behavioral Scientist, 43, 1159–1206.Google Scholar
  12. Cuyjet, M. J. (2006). African American men in college. San Francisco: Wiley.Google Scholar
  13. Ford, D. Y. (1996). Reversing underachievement among gifted black students: promising practices and programs. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  14. Gay, L. R., Mills, G. E., & AirAsian, P. (2009). Educational research (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
  15. Gladding, S. T. (2012). Groups: a counseling specialty (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
  16. Goodman, R., & West-Olatunji, C. (2010). Educational hegemony, traumatic stress, and African American and Latino American students. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 38(3), 176–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Harmon, D. (2002). In light of our differences: How diversity in nature and culture makes us human. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.Google Scholar
  18. Harper, S. R. (2004). The measure of a man: conceptualizations of masculinity among high-achieving African American male college students. Berkeley Journal of Sociology, 48(1), 89–107.Google Scholar
  19. Harper, S. R. (2009). Niggers no more: a critical race counternarrative on Black male achievement at predominantly white colleges and universities. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 22(6), 697–712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Harris, S. M. (1995). Psychosocial development and black male masculinity: Implication for Counseling economically disadvantage African American Male Adolescents. Journal of Counseling and Development, 73, 279–288.Google Scholar
  21. Huff, R. E., Houskamp, B. M., Watkins, A. V., Stanton, M., & Tavegia, B. (2005). The experiences of parents of gifted African American children: A phenomenological study. Raepcr Review, 27, 215–221.Google Scholar
  22. Hurtado, S., & Carter, D. F. (1997). Effects of college transition and perceptions of the campus racial climate on Latino college students' sense of belonging. Sociology of Education, 70(4), 324–345.Google Scholar
  23. Jones, J. D., & Michelle, W. (2006). The African American Student Center and Black Student Retention at a Pacific Northwest PWI. The Western Journal of Black Studies, 30, 24–34.Google Scholar
  24. Kunjufu, K. (2005). Conspiracy to destroy black boys. Chicago: African American Images.Google Scholar
  25. Landry, C. C. (2003). Retention of women and people of color: unique challenges and institutional responses. Journal of College Student Retention, 4, 1–13.Google Scholar
  26. Lavant, B. D., Anderson, J. L., & Tiggs, J. W. (1997). Retaining African American men through mentoring initiatives. New Directions for Student Services, 1997, 43–53.Google Scholar
  27. Maton, K. I., Hrabowski, F. A., & Schmitt, C. L. (2000). African American college students excelling in the sciences: college and postcollege outcomes in the Meyerhoff Scholars Program. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 37, 629–654.Google Scholar
  28. Museus, S.D., Nichols, A.D., & Lambert, A.D. (2008). Racial differences in the effects of campus racial climate on degree completion: a structural model. The Review of Higher Education, 32, 107–134Google Scholar
  29. National Survey of Student Engagement. (2011, March 6). About NSSE. National Survey of Student Engagement. Accessed 6 Mar 2011
  30. NCAA Research Staff. (2009). NCAA Research Related to Graduation Rates of Division I Student- Athletes1984–2002. Google Scholar
  31. Peltier, G. L., Laden, R., & Matranga, M. (2000). Student Persistence in College: A Review of research. Journal of College Student Retention, 1, 357–375.Google Scholar
  32. Robertson, R. V., & Mason, D. (2008). What works? A qualitative examination of of the factors related to the academic success of African American males at a predominately white college in the south. Challenge: A Journal of Research on African American Men, 14, 67–89.Google Scholar
  33. Rodgers, K. A., & Summers, J. J. (2008). African American students at predominantly white institutions: a motivational and self-systems approach to understanding retention. Education Psychology Review, 20(2), 171–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Schwitzer, A. M., Griffin, O. T., Ancis, J. R., & Thomas, C. R. (1999). Social adjustment experiences of African American college students. Journal of Counseling and Development, 77, 189–197.Google Scholar
  35. Soloranzo, D., Ceja, Ml., & Yasso, T. (2000). Critical race theory, racial microaggressions, and campus racial climate: the experiences of African American college students. Harvard Educational Review, 79, 659–690.Google Scholar
  36. Sprurgeon, S. L., & Myers, J. E. (2008). African American males: relationships among racial identity, college type, and wellness. Journal of Black Studies, 40, 527–543.Google Scholar
  37. Steel, C. M. (2000). Stereotype threat and black college students. AAHE Bulletin, 52(6), 3–6.Google Scholar
  38. Strayhorn, T. L. (2008). The role of supportive relationships in facilitating African American males' success in college. NASPAA Journal, 45, 26–48.Google Scholar
  39. Strayhorn, T. L., & Devita, J. M. (2010). African American males' student engagement: a comparison of good practices by institutional type. Journal of African American Studies, 14, 87–105.Google Scholar
  40. Sue, D. W. (2006). Overcoming our racism: the journey to liberation. San Francisco: Josey-Bass.Google Scholar
  41. Tierney, W. G. (1999). Models of minority college-going and retention: cultural integrity versus cultural suicide. The Journal of Negro Education, 65(2), 122–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Tinto, V. (1993). Leaving college: rethinking the causes and cures of student attrition (2nd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  43. Tinto, V. (1999). Taking student retention seriously: rethinking the first year of college. NACADA Journal, 19, 5–9.Google Scholar
  44. Tinto, V. (2006). Research and practice of student retention: what’s next? Journal of College Student Retention, 8(1), 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. US Department of Education (2010, April). United States Department of Education. Accessed Mar 2011.

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Human Studies DepartmentUniversity of AlabamaSouth BirminghamUSA
  2. 2.Florida International UniversityMiamiUSA

Personalised recommendations